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RobertHouse
Vault Dweller
Vault Dweller


Joined: 07 Apr 2014
Posts: 121

PostPosted: Fri May 23, 2014 7:45 am Reply with quoteBack to top

Wow this spam shit is ridiculous.
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Manoil
Wastelander's Nightmare
Wastelander's Nightmare


Joined: 22 Feb 2006
Posts: 3719
Location: Drifting Onward

PostPosted: Fri May 23, 2014 5:51 pm Reply with quoteBack to top

A far cry from what it used to be, but this one seems particularly ambitious.
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Manoil
Wastelander's Nightmare
Wastelander's Nightmare


Joined: 22 Feb 2006
Posts: 3719
Location: Drifting Onward

PostPosted: Fri May 23, 2014 5:54 pm Reply with quoteBack to top

Crazy. Four spam accounts across two different IP addresses. This could be the start of something new.
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RobertHouse
Vault Dweller
Vault Dweller


Joined: 07 Apr 2014
Posts: 121

PostPosted: Fri May 23, 2014 10:44 pm Reply with quoteBack to top

How long has this fuck tard been doing this? I had a website with live chat and someone was trying to sell car parts and cleaners.
He was posting shit everywhere.

The spam IPs where:
95.26.125.108
216.151.130.170
188.123.248.4
188.123.248.103
84.240.9.6

After the last one i said fuck it! Only people i trust get to post stuff.
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Manoil
Wastelander's Nightmare
Wastelander's Nightmare


Joined: 22 Feb 2006
Posts: 3719
Location: Drifting Onward

PostPosted: Tue May 27, 2014 8:00 pm Reply with quoteBack to top

Plenty of different ones, each with slowly-advancing software. Have to question exactly how it's being done, but they're getting past the filters and questions.
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Retlaw83
Goatse Messiah
Goatse Messiah


Joined: 17 Jul 2004
Posts: 5328

PostPosted: Wed May 28, 2014 9:06 pm Reply with quoteBack to top

They have a human reading the question. I've changed it to a question requiring research if you're not a Fallout fan and the new word filter makes them look like they're selling drugs and antique dildos.
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HELEN
Scarf-wearing n00b
Scarf-wearing n00b


Joined: 06 May 2016
Posts: 36
Location: Station to Station

PostPosted: Fri May 06, 2016 6:26 pm Reply with quoteBack to top

This is a good article. Click here for more information.
Fallout 3
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fallout 3
Fallout 3 cover art.PNG
Developer(s) Bethesda Game Studios
Publisher(s) Bethesda Softworks
Director(s) Todd Howard
Producer(s) Todd Howard
Gavin Carter
Ashley Cheng
Designer(s) Emil Pagliarulo
Joel Burgess
Adam Adamowicz
Programmer(s) Guy Carver
Steve Meister
Artist(s) Istvan Pely
Adam Adamowicz
Josh Jones
Mark Lampert
Writer(s) Emil Pagliarulo
Composer(s) Inon Zur
Series Fallout
Engine Gamebryo
Platform(s) Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360
Release date(s)

NA October 28, 2008
EU October 30, 2008
AUS October 30, 2008

Genre(s) Action role-playing
Mode(s) Single-player

Fallout 3 is an action role-playing open world video game developed by Bethesda Game Studios, and is the third major installment in the Fallout series.[1] It was released worldwide in October 2008 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360.[2][3][4]

Fallout 3 takes place in the year 2277, 116 years after the setting of Fallout, 36 years after the setting of Fallout 2 and 200 years after the nuclear apocalypse that devastated the game's world, in a future where international conflicts between the United States and China culminated in a Sino-American war in 2077, due to the scarcity of petroleum reserves that ran the economies of both countries. The player character is an inhabitant of Vault 101, a survival shelter designed to protect up to 1,000 humans from the nuclear fallout. When the player character's father disappears under mysterious circumstances, the leader of the Vault initiates martial law and sends security forces after the player, who is forced to escape from the Vault and journey into the ruins of Washington, D.C. to track their father down. Along the way the player is assisted by a number of human survivors and must battle a myriad of enemies that inhabit the area, now known as the "Capital Wasteland".

Fallout 3 was critically acclaimed and received a number of Game of the Year awards, praising the game's open-ended gameplay and flexible character-leveling system. The game is considered to be one of the greatest video games of all time. The NPD Group estimated that Fallout 3 sold over 610,000 units during its initial month of release in October 2008, performing better than Bethesda's previous game, The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, which sold nearly 500,000 units in its first month. The game received post-launch support with Bethesda releasing five downloadable add-ons. The game also received controversy upon release, in Australia for including the use of and the ability to be addicted to alcohol and drugs, in India for religious and cultural sentiments over the cattle in the game being called Brahmin, and in Japan due to a weapon called the "Fat Man", which launches mini nuclear bombs.

Contents

1 Gameplay
1.1 Attributes
1.2 Health and weapons
1.3 V.A.T.S.
1.4 Companions
2 Plot
2.1 Setting
2.2 Story
3 Development
3.1 Interplay Entertainment
3.2 Bethesda Softworks
3.2.1 Audio
4 Marketing and release
4.1 Trailers
4.2 Film festival
4.3 Retail versions
5 Downloadable content
6 Reception
6.1 Reviews
6.2 Sales
6.3 Awards
6.4 Technical issues
6.5 Controversy and fandom
7 Regional variations
7.1 Drug references
7.2 Release in India
7.3 Sensitivity in Japan
8 References
9 External links

Gameplay
Attributes
The Pip-Boy 3000, shown displaying the player's current skill ratings.

The game starts with the main character as a newborn, whereupon the player determines the race, gender, and the general appearance of their character. As a one-year-old baby, the infant reads a child's book titled You're SPECIAL, where the player can set the character's starting S.P.E.C.I.A.L. primary attributes: Strength, Perception, Endurance, Charisma, Intelligence, Agility, and Luck. The character gains a set of Skills with base levels determined by these attributes. At age 10, the character obtains a Pip-Boy, a computerized wristwatch which allows the player to access a menu with statistics, maps, data, radio, and other items. The character also obtains their first weapon, a BB gun, which he or she then uses to kill a radroach, a type of irradiated giant cockroach. At age 16, the character takes the Generalized Occupational Aptitude Test (G.O.A.T.) to determine the three Skills they wish the character to focus on.[5]

As the character progresses through the game, experience points are earned that are used to achieve levels of accomplishment. Upon achieving a new level, the player receives a set of skill points that can be assigned to improve any of the Skill percentages. For instance, increasing the lock pick skill grants the player the ability to pick harder locks to unlock doors and supply crates. A Perk is granted at each level, which offers advantages of varying quality and form. Many Perks have a set of prerequisites that must be satisfied, and new Perks are unlocked every two levels.[5]

An important statistic tracked in the game is karma. Each character has an aggregate amount of karma that can be affected by the decisions and actions made in the game. Positive karmic actions include freeing captives and helping others. Negative karmic actions include killing good characters and stealing. Beyond acting as flavor for the game's events, karma can have tangible effects to the player, primarily affecting the game's ending. Other effects include altered dialogue with non-player characters (NPCs), or unique reactions from other characters. Actions vary in the level of karma change they cause; thus, pickpocketing produces less negative karma than the killing of a good character. However, the player's relationships with the game's factions are distinct, so any two groups or settlements may view the player in contrasting ways, depending on the player's conduct. Some Perks require specific karma levels.[6]
Health and weapons

Health is separated into two types: general and limb. General health is the primary damage bar, and the player will die if it is depleted. Limb health is specific to each portion of the body, namely the arms, legs, head, and torso. Non-human enemies will sometimes have additional appendages. When a limb's health bar is depleted, that limb is rendered "crippled" and induces a negative status effect, such as blurred vision from a crippled head or reduced movement speed from a crippled leg. Health is diminished when damage is taken from being attacked, falling from great distances, or accidental self injury. General health can be replenished by sleeping, using medical equipment (stimpaks), eating food, or drinking water. Limbs can be healed directly by injecting them with stimpaks, by sleeping, or by being healed by a doctor.[7] Along with the health, there are 20 bobbleheads that can be found throughout the game that will give the player bonuses to attributes and skills. Each bobblehead is an iconic Vault Boy figurine in a different pose. Three of them have to be found in different time periods in the gameplay; otherwise they will be lost.[8]

There are secondary health factors that can affect performance. Chief among these is radiation poisoning: most food is irradiated to a small degree, and parts of the world have varying levels of background radiation. As the player is exposed to radiation, it builds up, causing negative effects and eventually death if left untreated. Radiation sickness must be healed by special medicine named Rad Away or by visiting one of the Wasteland's doctors. Radiation can be prevented by the use of Rad-X which increases radiation resistance. The player can become addicted to drugs and alcohol, and then go through withdrawal symptoms if denied those substances. Both afflictions can blur the player's vision for a few seconds and have a negative effect on SPECIAL attributes until the problem is corrected.[9]

Items can become degraded and become less effective. Firearms do less damage and may jam during reloading, and apparel becomes gradually less protective.[10] This will eventually result in the item breaking altogether. Items can be repaired for a price from special vendors, or, when the player has two of the same item (or a comparable item), one can be repaired using salvage parts from the other. Players have the option to create their own weaponry using various scavenged items found in the wasteland. These items can only be created at workbenches, and only if the player possesses the necessary schematics or Perk. These weapons usually possess significant advantages over other weapons of their type. Each schematic has three copies that can be found. Each copy improves the condition (or number) of items produced at the workbench. A higher repair skill will result in a better starting condition for the related weapon. Weapon schematics can be found lying in certain locations, bought from vendors, or received as quest rewards.[11]
V.A.T.S.
V.A.T.S. shown being used. Real-time action is stopped and the player can see the probability of hitting each enemy body part through percentage ratio.

The Vault-Tec Assisted Targeting System, or V.A.T.S., plays an important part in combat. While using V.A.T.S., real-time combat is paused, and action is played out from varying camera angles in a computer graphics version of "bullet time", creating a combat system that the Bethesda developers have described as a hybrid between timeturn-based and real-time combat. Various actions cost action points, limiting the actions of each combatant during a turn, and the player can target specific body areas for attacks to inflict specific injuries; head shots can be used for quick kills or blinding, legs can be targeted to slow enemies' movements, opponents can be disarmed by shooting at their weapons, and players can drive certain enemies into a berserker rage by shooting out things like antennae on various overgrown insects and combat inhibitors on armored robots. However, the use of V.A.T.S. also eliminates most of the first-person shooter elements of the game; aiming is taken over by the computer, and the player is unable to move as a means of avoiding attacks. Each body part has a percentage of hit chance, and generally the closer the player character is to an enemy the higher that percentage. The higher level the character using V.A.T.S is, the more likely that character will hit their enemy.[12]
Companions

The player can have a maximum party of three consisting of the player's character, a dog named Dogmeat, and a single non-player character (NPC). Dogmeat can be killed during the game if the player misuses him or places him in a severely dangerous situationa;[13][14] it is possible to not encounter Dogmeat at all depending on how the game is played.[15] One other NPC can travel with the player at any time, and in order to get another NPC to travel, the first one must be dismissed (either voluntarily by the player or as a consequence of other events) or die in combat.
a In the "Broken Steel" DLC, the level 22 perk "Puppies!" allows the player to gain a puppy if Dogmeat dies.
Plot
Setting
Main article: Fallout (series)
The desolate area of the Capital Wasteland, where Fallout 3 takes place.

Fallout 3 takes place in the year 2277, 200 years after a war over resources that ended in nuclear holocaust in 2077. The setting is a post-apocalyptic retro-future, covering a region that includes Washington, D.C., Northern Virginia and parts of Maryland.[16] The game's landscape includes war-ravaged variants of numerous real-life landmarks such as the White House, the Jefferson and Lincoln Memorials, Arlington National Cemetery and the Washington Monument. The area that the game is set in, known in-game as the Capital Wasteland, holds a number of small settlements of the descendants of survivors from the Great War. Many inhabitants were killed during the nuclear holocaust and the Wasteland is now little more than a barren land nearly devoid of healthy water, food, plant and animal life due to the extreme radiation levels. However, there is a small settlement in the north part of the Capital Wasteland where plant life is abundant.[17]

The player begins the game inside Vault 101, where they were raised, before escaping out into the Capital Wasteland and facing its many dangers. The Capital Wasteland is home to a number of mutated species of creatures such as two-headed cattle called Brahmin, radscorpions, molerats, and mirelurks. Many of these creatures are generally hostile to the player and will attack on sight. The Wasteland and the city proper is home to several hostile groups, including super mutants, feral ghouls, raiders, slavers, mercenaries, and robots. Of note are the various Vaults—underground structures designed as shelters to protect inhabitants from the dangers of nuclear war (and also for more sinister purposes). In the Washington, D.C. area, many of the roads are blocked off with giant piles of rubble. The player can navigate around the city using a system of underground metro tunnels that connect with other locations (loosely based on the real-life Washington Metro).[18]

The game takes place in an alternate version of history that sees the 1940s' and 1950s' aesthetics, design and technology advance in the directions imagined at the time. The resulting universe is thus a retro-futuristic one, where the technology has evolved enough to produce laser weapons, manipulate genes and create nearly-autonomous artificial intelligence, but all within the confines of 1950s' solutions like the widespread use of atomic power and vacuum tubes, as well as having the integrated circuitry of the digital age. The architecture, advertisements and general living styles are also depicted to be largely unchanged since the 1950s, while including contemporary products, such as a robotic rocking horse for children in one advertisement, or posters for the underground vaults that play a central role in the storyline of the game.
Story

The introductory sequence introduces the player to their character's father, James, a doctor and scientist in Vault 101. James frequently makes comments about the player character's deceased mother Catherine, and her favorite Bible passage, Revelation 21:6, which speaks of "the waters of life".

The main quest begins 19 years later, after the player is forced to flee Vault 101 when James leaves the vault, throwing it into anarchy and causing the paranoid Overseer, the leader of the Vault, to send his security force after the player. The search for James takes the character on a journey through the Wasteland, first to the nearby town of Megaton, named for the undetonated atomic bomb at the center of town, then the Galaxy News Radio station, whose enthusiastic DJ Three Dog gives the player the moniker of "The Lone Wanderer". The player travels to Rivet City, a derelict aircraft carrier now serving as a fortified human settlement. Here the player meets Doctor Li, a scientist who worked alongside the player's father. Doctor Li informs the player of Project Purity, a plan conceived by Catherine and James to purify all the water in the Tidal Basin and eventually the entire Potomac River with a giant water purifier built in the Jefferson Memorial. However, continued delays and Catherine's death during childbirth put an end to the project, and James took the player's character as a newborn to raise them in the safety of Vault 101.

After investigating the Jefferson Memorial, the Lone Wanderer tracks James to Vault 112, and frees him from a virtual reality program being run by the Vault's sadistic Overseer, Dr. Braun. James and the player return to Rivet City, and James reveals he sought out Braun for information on the Garden of Eden Creation Kit (G.E.C.K.), a device that contains the components needed to finally activate Project Purity. James and Doctor Li lead a team of Rivet City scientists to the memorial with intent to restart the project, but the memorial is invaded by the Enclave, a powerful military organization formed from the remnants of the pre-War United States government. James floods the project's control room with radiation to stop the Enclave military leader, Colonel Augustus Autumn, from taking control of it, killing himself (but Autumn survives), his last words urging his child to run. The Lone Wanderer and Dr. Li flee to the ruins of the Pentagon, now a base for the Brotherhood of Steel and now known as the Citadel. With Project Purity still inoperational even with the Enclave occupying the site, the player travels to Vault 87 to find a G.E.C.K. and finish James's work. The player finds the Vault to be a testing site for the FEV (Forced Evolutionary Virus), and the source of the Super Mutants in the Capital Wasteland. After the player acquires the G.E.C.K., the Wanderer is ambushed by the Enclave and captured.

At the Enclave base at Raven Rock, the player is freed from their cell by the Enclave leader, President John Henry Eden, who requests a private audience with them. En route to his office however, Colonel Autumn defies Eden's orders and takes command of the Enclave military, ordering them to kill the player. Fighting their way to Eden's office, the player discovers Eden is actually a sentient ZAX series supercomputer who took control of the Enclave after their defeat in Fallout 2 on the West Coast thirty years previously. Eden wishes to repeat the plan of then-President Dick Richardson using Project Purity, infecting the water with a modified strain of FEV that will make it toxic to any mutated life. This plan will kill most life in the wasteland including humans, but the Enclave, due to their genetic "purity" as a result of their isolation, will be immune and free to take control of the area. The Wanderer, provided with a sample of the new F.E.V., is given a choice to either leave peacefully or convince Eden to self-destruct the entire base. The Lone Wanderer escapes Raven Rock and returns to the Citadel.

With the knowledge they possess, the G.E.C.K. and the means to activate Project Purity, the Brotherhood assault the Jefferson Memorial, spearheaded by a giant robot named Liberty Prime. In the control room of Project Purity the player confronts Colonel Autumn, and has the choice to persuade him to give up or kill him. Dr. Li informs the player that the purifier is ready to be activated, but the activation code must be input manually, and also that the control room is flooded with lethal amounts of radiation. The Lone Wanderer is forced to choose between sending Sarah Lyons of the Brotherhood inside the extremely irradiated purifier or entering themselves. Whoever enters into the chamber inputs the code hinted at throughout the game, 21:6, and dies from a radiation spike.

If the "Broken Steel" DLC is installed, the player survives if they activate it themselves, but they also have the option of sending one of their radiation-immune companions to enter the code and start the purifier with no casualties. The player also has the possibility to enter the F.E.V. sample into the water prior to activation, having adverse post-ending effects on the game's side quests.
Development
Interplay Entertainment
Further information: Van Buren (video game)

Fallout 3 was initially under development by Black Isle Studios, a studio owned by Interplay Entertainment, under the working title Van Buren. Black Isle Studios was the developer of the original Fallout and Fallout 2. When Interplay Entertainment went bankrupt and closed down Black Isle Studios before the game could be completed, the license to develop Fallout 3 was sold for a $1,175,000 minimum guaranteed advance against royalties to Bethesda Softworks, a studio primarily known as the developer of The Elder Scrolls series.[19] Bethesda's Fallout 3, however, was developed from scratch, using neither Van Buren code nor any other materials created by Black Isle Studios.[20] In May 2007, a playable technology demo of the canceled project was released to the public.[21]

Leonard Boyarsky, art director of the original Fallout, when asked about Interplay Entertainment's sale of the rights to Bethesda Softworks, said "To be perfectly honest, I was extremely disappointed that we did not get the chance to make the next Fallout game. This has nothing to do with Bethesda, it's just that we've always felt that Fallout was ours and it was just a technicality that Interplay happened to own it. It sort of felt as if our child had been sold to the highest bidder, and we had to just sit by and watch. Since I have absolutely no idea what their plans are, I can't comment on whether I think they're going in the right direction with it or not.".[22]
Bethesda Softworks
Bethesda Softworks' Fallout 3 booth at the Games Convention 2008

Bethesda Softworks started working on Fallout 3 in July 2004,[23] but principal development did not begin until after The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion and its related extras and plug ins were completed.[24] Bethesda Softworks decided to make Fallout 3 similar to the previous two games, focusing upon non-linear gameplay, story, and black comedy. Bethesda also chose to pursue an ESRB rating of M (for mature) by including the adult themes, violence, and depravity characteristic of the Fallout series. They also decided to shy away from the self-referential gags of the game's predecessors that broke the illusion that the world of Fallout is real. Fallout 3 uses a version of the same Gamebryo engine as Oblivion,[25] and was developed by the team responsible for that game.[26] Liam Neeson was cast as the voice of the player's father.[27]

In February 2007, Bethesda stated that the game was "a fairly good ways away" from release but that detailed information and previews would be available later in the year.[26] Following a statement made by Pete Hines that the team wanted to make the game a "multiple platform title",[28] the game was announced by Game Informer to be in development for Windows, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3.[4]

During a March 21, 2008, Official Xbox Magazine podcast interview, Todd Howard revealed that the game had expanded to nearly the same scope as Oblivion. There were originally at least 12 versions of the final cutscene, but, with further development, this expanded to over 200 possible permutations in the final release, all of which are determined by the actions taken by the player.[14] Bethesda Softworks attended E3 2008 to showcase Fallout 3. The first live demo of the Xbox 360 version of the game was shown and demonstrated by Todd Howard, taking place in downtown Washington, D.C. The demo showcased various weapons such as the Fat Man nuclear catapult, the V.A.T.S. system and the functions of the Pip-Boy 3000 as well as combat with several enemies. The demo concluded as the player neared the Brotherhood of Steel-controlled Pentagon and was attacked by an Enclave patrol.[29]
Audio

Several actors of film and video games lent their voices to Fallout 3, including Liam Neeson as James,[27] Ron Perlman as the game's narrator, Malcolm McDowell as President John Henry Eden, Craig Sechler as Butch DeLoria, Erik Todd Dellums as Three Dog, and Odette Yustman as Amata Almodovar. Veteran voice actors Dee Bradley Baker, Wes Johnson, Paul Eiding, and Stephen Russell also provided voice overs for the game. The Fallout 3 soundtrack continued the series' convention of featuring sentimental 1940s big band American popular music, the main theme, and few other side songs recorded by The Ink Spots and The Andrews Sisters; in addition to a score written by composer Inon Zur.[30] The soundtrack of the game included artists such as Roy Brown, Billie Holiday, Billy Munn, Cole Porter, and Bob Crosby.[31]
Marketing and release
"Prepare for the Future" promotional campaign at the Metro Center station in Washington, D.C.
Trailers

A teaser site for the game appeared on May 2, 2007, and featured music from the game and concept art, along with a timer that counted down to June 5, 2007. The artists and developers involved later confirmed that the concept art, commissioned before Oblivion had been released, did not reveal anything from the actual game.[32] When the countdown finished, the site hosted the first teaser trailer for the game, and unveiled a release date of "Fall 2008".[33]

On June 5, 2007, Bethesda released the Fallout 3 teaser trailer.[34] The press kit released with the trailer indicated that Ron Perlman would be on board with the project, and cited a release date of Fall 2008. The trailer featured The Ink Spots song "I Don't Want to Set the World on Fire", which the previous Fallout developer Black Isle Studios originally intended to license for use in the first Fallout game. The trailer, which was completely done with in-engine assets, closed with Ron Perlman saying his trademark line which he also spoke in the original Fallout: "War. War never changes". The trailer showed a devastated Washington, D.C., evidenced by the partially damaged Washington Monument in the background as well as the crumbling buildings that surrounded a rubble-choked city thoroughfare.[35]

A second trailer was first shown during a GameTrailers TV E3 special on July 12, 2008. The trailer zoomed out from a ruined house in the Washington, D.C. suburbs, and provided a wider view of the capital's skyline including the Capitol Building and Washington Monument in the distance.[36] On July 14, 2008, an extended version of this trailer was made available, which besides the original content, included a Vault-Tec advertisement and actual gameplay. Both versions of the trailer featured the song "Dear Hearts and Gentle People" as recorded by Bob Crosby and the Bobcats.[37]
Film festival

On July 11, 2008, as a part of promoting Fallout 3, Bethesda Softworks partnered with American Cinematheque and Geek Monthly to sponsor "A Post-Apocalyptic Film Festival Presented by Fallout 3". The festival took place on August 22–23 at Santa Monica's Aero Theater. Six post-apocalyptic movies were shown which depict life and events that could occur after a world-changing disaster, including Wizards, Damnation Alley, A Boy and His Dog, The Last Man on Earth, The Omega Man, and Twelve Monkeys.[38]
Retail versions
Features Edition
Standard Collector's Limited Survival Game of the Year
Game disc & manual Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bonus DVD No Yes No Yes No
Concept artbook No Yes No Yes No
Vault Boy Bobblehead No Yes No Yes No
Lunchbox case No Yes No Yes No
Power Armor figurine No No Yes No No
PIP-Boy 3000 clock No No No Yes No
Downloadable content No No No No Yes

Fallout 3 was released in five separate versions, only three of which were made available worldwide:

The Standard Edition includes the game disc and instruction manual with no extras.
The Collector's Edition includes the game disc, manual, a bonus "making of" disc, a concept artbook, and a 5" Vault Boy Bobblehead, all of which is contained in a Vault-Tec lunchbox.[39] In Australia, the Collector's Edition is exclusive to Gametraders and EB Games.[40]
The Limited Edition includes the game disc and manual, as well as a Brotherhood of Steel Power Armor figurine. This edition is available only in the UK through the retailer Game.
The Survival Edition includes everything from the Collector's Edition, as well as a model of the PIP-Boy 3000 from the game which functions as a digital clock.[39] The Survival Edition is available exclusively from Amazon.com to U.S. customers only.[41]
The Game of the Year Edition, which includes the original Fallout 3 game as well as all 5 of the downloadable content packs, was released on October 13, 2009 in North America and October 16, 2009 in Europe. It was released in Australia on October 22, 2009, and in Japan on December 3, 2009.[42] It was made available on Steam on December 17, 2009.[43]

An Xbox 360 version of Fallout 3 and Oblivion double pack was announced for release in North America on April 3.[44]
Downloadable content
Main article: Fallout 3 downloadable content

Bethesda's Todd Howard first confirmed during E3 2008 that downloadable content (DLC) would be prepared for the Xbox 360 and Windows versions of Fallout 3.[45][46][47] There are five DLCs: Operation: Anchorage, The Pitt, Broken Steel, Point Lookout, and Mothership Zeta, released in that order. Of the five, Broken Steel has the largest effect on the game, altering the ending and allowing the player to continue playing past the end of the main quest line.[48]

Originally, there was no downloadable content announced for the PlayStation 3 version of the game.[45] Although Bethesda had not offered an official explanation as to why the content was not released for PlayStation 3, Lazard Capital Markets analyst Colin Sebastian speculated that it may have been the result of a money deal with Bethesda by Sony's competitor, Microsoft.[46] When asked if the PlayStation 3 version would receive an update that would enable gameplay beyond the main quest's completion, Todd Howard responded, "Not at this time, no."[49] However, in May 2009, Bethesda announced that the existing DLC packs (Operation: Anchorage, The Pitt and Broken Steel) would be made available for the PlayStation 3; the later two (Point Lookout and Mothership Zeta) were released for all platforms.[50]

On October 1, 2009, a New Xbox Experience premium theme for the game was released for the Xbox 360. Consumers could pay 240 Microsoft Points, or by having downloaded all other downloadable content. The PlayStation 3 received a free theme, featuring a Brotherhood of Steel Knight in the background, and includes symbols from the game as icons on the PS3 home menu.[51][52][53] In December 2008 the official editor, known as the G.E.C.K. (Garden of Eden Creation Kit) was made available for the Windows version of the game as a free download from the Fallout 3 website.[54][55]
Reception
Reviews
[icon] This section requires expansion. (January 2016)
Reception
Aggregate score
Aggregator Score
Metacritic 93/100 (X360)[69]
91/100 (PC)[70]
90/100 (PS3)[71]
Review scores
Publication Score
1UP.com A[56]
Edge 7/10[57]
EGM A, B+, A+[58]
Eurogamer 10/10[59]
Famitsu 38/40[60]
Game Informer 9.5/10[61]
GameSpot 9/10 (X360/PC)[62][63]
8.5/10 (PS3)[64]
GameSpy 5/5 stars[5]
IGN 9.6/10 (X360/PC)[65]
9.4/10 (PS3)[66]
OXM 10/10[67]
PC Gamer (US) 91%[68]
Awards
Publication Award
9th Annual Game Developers Choice Awards Game of the Year 2008[72]
Best Writing[72]
IGN Best of 2008[73] Game of the Year 2008[74]
Best Xbox 360 Game[75]
Best RPG[76]
Best Use of Sound[76]
GameSpot Best of 2008 Best PC Game[76]
Best RPG[76]
Golden Joystick Award 2009 Ultimate Game of the Year 2009[77]
PC Game of the Year 2009[77]

Fallout 3 received "universal acclaim", according to video game review aggregator Metacritic.[69][70][71] 1UP.com's Demian Linn praised its open-ended gameplay and flexible character-leveling system. While the V.A.T.S. system was called "fun", enemy encounters were said to suffer from a lack of precision in real-time combat and little variety in enemy types. The review concluded, Fallout 3 is a "hugely ambitious game that doesn't come around very often".[56] IGN editor Erik Brudvig praised the game's "minimalist" sound design, observing, "you might find yourself with nothing but the sound of wind rustling through decaying trees and blowing dust across the barren plains ... Fallout 3 proves that less can be more". The review noted that the "unusual amount of realism" combined with the "endless conversation permutations" produces "one of the most truly interactive experiences of the generation".[65] In a review of the game for Kotaku, Mike Fahey commented that "While Inon Zur's score is filled with epic goodness, the real stars of Fallout 3's music are the vintage songs from the 1940s".[78] Will Tuttle of GameSpy commended the game for its "engaging storyline, impeccable presentation, and hundreds of hours of addictive gameplay".[79] Although Edge awarded the game 7 out of 10, in a later anniversary issue it placed the game 37th in a "100 best games to play today" list, saying "Fallout 3 empowers, engages and rewards to extents that few games have ever achieved".[80]

Some criticisms were the bugs in regards to the physics and crashes—some of which broke quests and even prevented progression.[65] The AI and stiff character animations are another common point of criticism,[81][82][83] as is the ending.[81][84] Edge stated that "the game is cumbersome in design and frequently incompetent in the details of execution", taking particular issue with the nakedness of the HUD, the clarity of the menu interface, and that the smaller problems are carried over from Oblivion. Edge liked the central story but said "the writing isn't quite as consistent as the ideas that underpin" and that the "voice-acting is even less reliable".[57]
Sales

From its release in October to the end of 2008, Fallout 3 shipped over 4.7 million units.[85] According to NPD Group, as of January 2009, the Xbox 360 version had sold 1.14 million units, and the PlayStation 3 version had sold 552,000 units.[86] The Xbox 360 version was the 14th best-selling game of December 2008 in the United States, while the PlayStation 3 version was the 8th best-selling PlayStation 3 game in that region and month.[87] Electronic Entertainment Design and Research, a market research firm, estimated that the game had sold 12.4 million copies worldwide.[88]

Fallout 3 was one of the most played titles in Xbox Live in 2009 and Games for Windows – Live in 2009, 2011, and 2012.[89][90][91]
Awards

Fallout 3 won several awards following its showcasing at E3 2007. IGN gave it the "Game of E3 2007" award, and GameSpot gave it the "Best Role-Playing Game of E3 2007" award.[92][93] Following the game's demonstration at E3 2008, IGN also gave it "Best Overall RPG", "Best Overall Console Game", and "Overall Game of the Show" for E3 2008.[94] Game Critics Awards gave the game "Best Role-Playing Game" and "Best of Show" for E3 2008.[95]

After its release, Fallout 3 won numerous awards from gaming journalists and websites. At the 2009 Game Developer's Choice Awards, it won overall "Game of the Year" along with "Best Writing."[72] It was also awarded "Game of the Year" by IGN,[74] GamesRadar,[96] GameSpy,[97] UGO Networks,[98] Gamasutra[99] and the Golden Joystick Awards.[77] The game also won "Xbox 360 Game of the Year" from Official Xbox Magazine,[76] GameSpy[76] and IGN,[75] while winning "PC Game of the Year" from GamePro,[100] GameSpy,[101] GameTrailers[102] and GameSpot,[76] with the latter two also awarding it "Best RPG."[76][103]

At the end of 2009, Fallout 3 was featured in IGN's "Best Video and Computer Games of the Decade" (2000–2009), with the game being placed top game of 2008[104] and seventh overall game of the decade.[105] In 2012, Fallout 3 was also exhibited at the Smithsonian American Art Museum . Fallout 3 was voted for and won the "Adventure" section for the platform "Modern Windows."[106] That same year, G4tv ranked it as the 75th top video game of all time.[107]
Technical issues

Shortly before the game's release, IGN posted a review of the game, citing numerous bugs and crashes in the PlayStation 3 release.[108] The game also contained a bug, causing the game to freeze and the screen to blur when friends signed out of and into the PlayStation Network.[108] The IGN review was edited shortly thereafter, removing all references to the PS3 version's bugs, causing controversy in the PlayStation communities.[108][109] Reviewing PlayStation 3 Game of the Year edition, Digital Chumps and Spawn Kill confirmed that most bugs remained, citing occasional freezes, several animation, and scripting issues along with other bugs, requiring a restart of the game.[110][111] Even IGN retroactively cited bugs with the original release as well as the Game of the Year edition, calling it "a fantastic game", but warned players to "be aware that you might have to deal with some crashes and bugs".[112]
Controversy and fandom

[Fallout 3] is not a Fallout game. It's not even a game inspired by Fallout, as I had hoped. It's a game that contains a loose assortment of familiar Fallout concepts and names ... Electricity, pre-war electronic equipment, powered and still working computers (just think about that for a second), working cola & snack machines, weapons, ammo, scrap metal (needed by many), and even unlooted first aid boxes are everywhere.
—Vince D. Weller, long-time No Mutants Allowed member, former RPG news site director, and lead developer of The Age of Decadence[113][114]

Not all fans are happy with the direction the Fallout series has taken since its acquisition by Bethesda Softworks. Notorious for their support of the series' first two games, Fallout and Fallout 2,[115][116] members centered around one of the oldest Fallout fansites, No Mutants Allowed, have criticized departures from the original games' stories, gameplay mechanics and setting.[116] Criticisms include the prevalence of unspoiled food after 200 years, the survival of wood-framed dwellings following a nuclear blast, and the ubiquitousness of Super Mutants at early levels in the game.[116] Also criticized are the quality of the game's writing, its level of verisimilitude, the switch to a first-person action game format, and the level of reactiveness of the surrounding game world to player actions.[116][117][118] In response, Jim Sterling of Destructoid has called fan groups like No Mutants Allowed "selfish" and "arrogant"; stating that a new audience deserves a chance to play a Fallout game; and that if the series had stayed the way it was back in 1997, new titles would never have been made and brought to market.[113] Luke Winkie of Kotaku tempers these sentiments, saying that it is a matter of ownership; and that in the case of Fallout 3, hardcore fans of the original series witnessed their favorite games become transformed into something else.[116]
Regional variations
Drug references

On July 4, 2008, Fallout 3 was refused classification by the ACB in Australia, thus making it illegal to distribute or purchase the game in the country. In order for the game to be reclassified, the offending content in the Australian version of the game would have had to be removed by Bethesda Softworks and the game resubmitted to the ACB.[119][120] According to the ACB board report, the game was refused classification due to the "realistic visual representations of drugs and their delivery method [bringing] the 'science-fiction' drugs in line with 'real-world' drugs".[121]

A revised version of the game was resubmitted to the ACB and reclassified as MA 15+ on August 7, 2008, or not suitable for people under the age of 15 unless accompanied by a parent or adult guardian; this new rating ensured that the game could retail legally in Australia.[119][122] According to the ACB board report, the drug content was not removed entirely from the revised version of the game, but the animation showing the actual usage of the drugs was removed; the minority view on the decision stated that the drug content was still enough to warrant a refused classification rating.[123]

In a later interview with UK gaming magazine Edge, Bethesda Softworks revealed that there would be only one version of Fallout 3 released worldwide, and that this version would have all real-world drug references removed. It was later clarified that the only change made would be that morphine, a real-world drug that would have appeared in the game, would instead be renamed to the more generic "Med-X".[124]
Release in India

On October 22, 2008, Microsoft announced that the game would not be released in India on the Xbox 360 platform.[125] Religious and cultural sentiments were cited as the reason. Microsoft stated, "Microsoft constantly endeavors to bring the best games to Indian consumers in sync with their international release. However, in light of cultural sensitivities in India, we have made the business decision to not bring Fallout 3 into the country."[126] Although the specific reason was not revealed in public, it is possible that it is because the game contains two-headed mutated cows called Brahmin, or that Brahmin is also the name of an ancient, powerful hereditary caste of Hindu priests and religious scholars in India, or its similarity to the spelling of brahman, a type of cow that originated in India. Brahman, a breed of Zebu, are revered by Hindus.[127]
Sensitivity in Japan

Bethesda Softworks changed the side quest "The Power of the Atom" in the Japanese version of Fallout 3 to relieve concerns about depictions of atomic detonation in inhabited areas, as the memory of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki remain strong in the country. In non-Japanese versions, players are given the option of either defusing, ignoring, or detonating the dormant atomic bomb in the town of Megaton; in the Japanese version, the character of Mr. Burke is absent, making it impossible to choose the detonation option.[128] Also in the Japanese release, the "Fat Man" nuclear catapult weapon was renamed "Nuka Launcher", as the original name was a reference to the bomb used on Nagasaki.[128][129] According to Tetsu Takahashi, responsible for localizing Fallout 3 to Japan under his company Zenimax Asia, the available actions prior to localizing "The Power of the Atom" and the ability to kill civilians almost got the game banned by CERO before it got an Adult Only Rating.[130]
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Fallout 4
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fallout 4
Fallout 4 cover art.jpg
Developer(s) Bethesda Game Studios
Publisher(s) Bethesda Softworks
Director(s) Todd Howard
Producer(s) Jeff Gardiner
Designer(s) Emil Pagliarulo
Programmer(s) Guy Carver
Artist(s) Istvan Pely
Writer(s) Emil Pagliarulo
Composer(s) Inon Zur
Series Fallout
Engine Creation Engine
Platform(s) Microsoft Windows
PlayStation 4
Xbox One
Release date(s)

WW November 10, 2015

Genre(s) Action role-playing
Mode(s) Single-player

Fallout 4 is an action role-playing video game developed by Bethesda Game Studios and published by Bethesda Softworks. The fifth major installment in the Fallout series, the game was released worldwide on November 10, 2015 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One.[1]

Fallout 4 is set in a post-apocalyptic Boston in the year 2287, 210 years after a devastating nuclear war, in which the player character emerges from an underground bunker known as Vault 111. Gameplay is similar to that of Fallout 3 and Fallout: New Vegas. The player completes various quests and acquires experience points to level up their character. With first-person and third-person perspectives available, players can explore Fallout 4's open world setting at will, allowing nonlinear gameplay. The player can bring companions to assist in battles and help with scavenging. Players have the ability to construct and deconstruct buildings and items, and use them to build settlements, which can attract and be inhabited by non-playable characters.

The game was rumored several times prior to its announcement. It was announced on June 3, 2015. The first gameplay footage of the game was shown at Bethesda's own conference at the 2015 Electronic Entertainment Expo. It is the first game in the series to feature full voice acting for the protagonist.

Fallout 4 received positive reviews from critics, with many praising the world depth, player freedom, overall amount of content, crafting, and soundtrack. The game shipped 12 million units and generated 750 million dollars within the first 24 hours of its launch. The game received numerous awards and nominations from various gaming publications, including the Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences and British Academy Games Awards, making it both a commercial and critical success.

Contents

1 Gameplay
2 Plot
2.1 Setting
2.2 Story
2.3 Endings
3 Development
3.1 Design
3.2 Engine
3.3 Rumors and hoaxes
3.4 Updates
4 Marketing and release
4.1 Announcement
4.2 Marketing
4.3 Downloadable content
5 Reception
5.1 Sales
5.2 Accolades
6 References
7 External links

Gameplay

Fallout 4's gameplay is similar to that of Fallout 3 and Fallout: New Vegas, the previous two main entries in the series. Returning features include a camera that can switch between a first-person and third-person perspective, and the ability to roam anywhere on the map. Fallout 4 introduces new features including a layered armor system, base-building, a dynamic dialogue system featuring 111,000 lines of dialogue,[2] an in-depth crafting system which implements every lootable object in the game, and much more. Enemies such as mole rats, raiders, super-mutants, deathclaws, and feral ghouls return in Fallout 4, along with the companion Dogmeat.[3]

Players have the ability to roam anywhere on the map, and leave a conversation at any time. They have the ability to customize weapons; the game includes over 50 base guns, which can be crafted with a variety of modifications, such as barrel types and laser focus, with over 700 modifications available. Power Armor has been redesigned to be more like a vehicle than an equipable suit of armor,[4] and can be modified, allowing players to add items such as a jetpack or selecting separate types of armor for each part of the suit.[5] A new feature to the series is the ability to craft and deconstruct settlements and buildings. Players can select some in-game objects and structures, and use them to freely build their own structures. In addition, the towns can be powered with working electricity, using a dynamic power line system. Merchants and non-player characters can inhabit the player's settlements, for which the player must provide sustenance by growing food in makeshift patches and building water spouts. Players can build various defenses around their settlements, such as turrets and traps, to defend against random attacks.[6]
When using V.A.T.S., real-time action is slowed down, and players can see the probability of hitting each body part of the enemies through percentage ratio

The Pip-Boy, a personal computing device strapped to the character's wrist, allows the player to access a menu with statistics, maps, data, and items. Players can find game cartridges, which can be played on the Pip-Boy. Another returning gameplay feature is the Vault-Tec Assisted Targeting System (V.A.T.S.), which plays an important part in combat. While using V.A.T.S., real-time combat is slowed down, and action is played out from varying camera angles in a computer graphics version of "bullet time". Various actions cost action points, limiting the actions of each combatant during a period of time, and the player can target specific body parts for attacks to inflict specific injuries; head shots can be used for quick kills or blinding, legs can be targeted to slow enemy movement, and opponents can be disarmed by shooting at their weapons. Unlike previous games, in which the player had a random chance to inflict a critical hit, they are now performed manually through V.A.T.S.[7]

At the beginning of the game, players are given points to spend on a character progression system called S.P.E.C.I.A.L.. The system represents seven statistics, namely strength, perception, endurance, charisma, intelligence, agility and luck. When players earn enough experience points to gain a new level, they unlock a new ability. When players allocate more points to a stat, more abilities can be unlocked. These perks can also be upgraded to improve the protagonist's efficiency and to further unlock new abilities.[8] There are about 275 perks available for players to unlock. There is no level cap and the game does not end once the main story is complete.[9]

The series also allows for the player to have a companion character follow and assist them, similar in style to Fallout 3 and Fallout: New Vegas. There are thirteen possible companions, seven of which (Dogmeat, Codsworth, Preston Garvey, Piper Wright, Nick Valentine, John Hancock, and Deacon) must be encountered during the main quests, although only Dogmeat is required to join. For the first time in the series, these companions can interact with the environment on the player character's behalf. For example, if the player character does not have required skills to hack a terminal or pick a lock, they can order the companion to do it for them. The player may only travel with one companion at a time, although the player is accompanied by other characters in certain quests. Some of the companions can be romanced by the player regardless of gender.[10]
Plot
Setting

Fallout 4 takes place in the year 2287, ten years after the events of Fallout 3 and 210 years after a Resource War over natural resources that ended in a nuclear holocaust in 2077. The setting is a post-apocalyptic retro-future, covering a region that includes Boston, Massachusetts and other parts of New England known as "The Commonwealth". Unlike the previous titles, Fallout 4's story begins on the day the bombs dropped: October 23, 2077. The player's character (voiced by either Brian T. Delaney or Courtenay Taylor) takes shelter in Vault 111, emerging exactly 210 years later, on October 23, 2287.[11]

The game takes place in an alternate version of history that sees the 1940s' and 1950s' aesthetics, design and technology advance in the directions imagined at the time. The resulting universe is thus a retro-futuristic one, where the technology has evolved enough to produce laser weapons, manipulate genes and create nearly-autonomous artificial intelligence, but all within the confines of 1950s' solutions like the widespread use of atomic power and vacuum tubes, as well as having the integrated circuitry of the digital age. The architecture, advertisements and general living styles are also depicted to be largely unchanged since the 1950s, while including contemporary products, such as a robotic rocking horse for children in one advertisement, or posters for the underground vaults that play a central role in the storyline of the game.
Story

The story begins on the morning of October 23, 2077 in Sanctuary Hills, with the player character, their spouse (Nate or Nora depending on the player character's gender), their son Shaun, and their robotic butler, Codsworth. As the player character is preparing for an event at the Veteran's Hall in Cambridge, a representative from Vault-Tec comes to inform them that their family is approved for admittance into Vault 111, the local fallout shelter. An imminent nuclear attack forces the family to rush to the Vault, narrowly avoiding death. Upon entering the Vault, the player character and family are tricked into entering cryogenic tubes by the Vault-Tec staff and frozen alive. After an unknown period of time, the player character and their spouse are re-awakened by two unknown individuals, and the player witnesses Shaun's kidnapping and their spouse's murder. The player is put back into cryo-sleep, but manages to get free of the cryo-tube at some point later when the life support system malfunctions. The player discovers that they are the sole survivor of Vault 111, and vows to avenge their spouse's death and find Shaun.

The player character heads home to Sanctuary Hills, now in ruins. The Sole Survivor meets a distraught Codsworth, revealing to the Survivor that over 210 years have passed since they were frozen in the Vault. Codsworth suggests that the player character to go to Concord for help, where the Sole Survivor rescues Preston Garvey—one of the last of the Commonwealth Minutemen—and his band of settlers from a group of raiders. After assisting Garvey and his group, the player is recommended to travel to Diamond City, a settlement based in the ruins of Fenway Park, where they meet Piper, an intrepid reporter. From her they learn about a secretive organization called the Institute terrifying the Commonwealth, kidnapping people from their homes and sometimes replacing them with "synths," synthetic human beings indistinguishable from real humans.

The Sole Survivor seeks out Nick Valentine, a detective based in Diamond City, to locate their son, but soon learns that Valentine went missing two weeks ago. After finding Valentine—revealed to be a second-generation synth, a sophisticated biomechanical android—the player uncovers the identity of their spouse's killer, a man named Conrad Kellogg. The Sole Survivor tracks down Kellogg and learns from him that Shaun is currently in the Institute. The player kills Kellogg and retrieves a cybernetic implant from his brain, then heads to Goodneighbor to seek help from Doctor Amari—a scientist skilled in neuroscience—to access the dead mercenary's memories. During their hunt for Kellogg, the Survivor also witnesses the Brotherhood of Steel arriving in the Commonwealth with the Prydwen, their mobile airship headquarters, and has the option to travel to Boston Airport to offer their assistance to the Brotherhood in the fight against the Institute.

After viewing Kellogg's memories, the Sole Survivor is then tasked to go to the Glowing Sea—the ground zero of the nuclear blast shown early in the game—to find Brian Virgil, an ex-Institute scientist, to get help infiltrating the Institute. According to Virgil, the only way to enter or exit the Institute is with a teleportation chip that only Institute Coursers—trained synth killers—possess. The player must then track down and kill a Courser in order to obtain the chip.

The Sole Survivor tracks down the secretive Railroad organization for assistance decoding the chip. The Railroad is dedicated to rescuing synths from the Institute, believing them to be oppressed by their creators and mistreated by the inhabitants of the Commonwealth. After they decode the chip for the player, the Railroad asks for their assistance in fighting the Institute, in which the player can accept or decline.

Virgil provides the blueprints for a device to hijack the Institute's Molecular Relay signal and teleport into the Institute using the chip data. The Sole Survivor has the choice to ally with the Minutemen, the Railroad, or the Brotherhood to construct the relay device. The player successfully enters the Institute, where they discover that their son Shaun is now an old man and the director of the Institute. Shaun reveals that he was kidnapped from the Vault as a specimen for synth experiments thanks to his pure pre-war DNA. Shaun later reveals that he is dying of cancer and wishes for the player to take up his role as Institute Director and continue the organization's plans for the future of the Commonwealth.
Endings

The player then faces a choice to determine the future of the Commonwealth. They can side with Shaun by siding with the Institute:

The Institute – The player must handle internal issues within the Institute—which was caused by Father's announcement making the Sole Survivor the next director of the organization. Siding with the Institute will lead the Sole Survivor to initiate a purge in the Commonwealth—wiping out the Railroad and the Brotherhood, who pose threats to their progress.

Or they can go against Shaun by siding with one of three other factions:

The Brotherhood of Steel – Siding with the Brotherhood will lead the Sole Survivor to rebuild Liberty Prime (last seen in Fallout 3) to be used as a weapon to destroy the Institute. The player must also lead an attack on the Railroad HQ to wipe out the organization, as they pose a tactical threat to the Brotherhood's ultimate goal of wiping out synthetic life from the Commonwealth. After reactivating Liberty Prime, the Brotherhood of Steel leads a charge against the Institute and blows up its nuclear reactor.
The Railroad – Siding with the Railroad will lead the Sole Survivor to go undercover in the Institute and meet with a man codenamed Patriot, to devise a plan to free all the synths and destroy the Institute. The Railroad also deems the Brotherhood of Steel a threat to the freed synths and devises a plan coded "Red Rockets Glare"—a plan to bring down the Prydwen and destroy the Brotherhood of Steel.
The Minutemen – Siding with the Minutemen will lead the Sole Survivor to rebuild the Minutemen in order to create an army to fight the Institute. Once the Minutemen is restored to its former strength, the player is then tasked to bring the battle to the Institute (and the Brotherhood of Steel if they are hostile) in order to protect the Commonwealth.

Development
Design

Unlike the previous two titles—Fallout 3 and Fallout: New Vegas—which used the Gamebryo engine, Fallout 4 uses the Creation Engine, which was previously used in The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim. Modified for Fallout 4, the Creation Engine includes a revamped character editor system that allows freeform creation of faces without the use of sliders seen in previous games. Instead, the player can click and drag each feature of the face to accurately customize their character, which can either be a man or woman as the previous Fallout titles have featured.[12] Bethesda announced that the game would run at 1080p resolution and 30 frames per second on PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.[13] Bethesda revealed that mobile devices would be integrated into the game as a form of second screen, acting as a secondary display for the Pip-Boy.[14]

For the first time, the player's character, the Sole Survivor, is fully voice acted and is able to have dynamic conversations akin to that of Mass Effect.[15] Brian T. Delaney and Courtenay Taylor are the two player character voice actors.[16]

Todd Howard revealed that mods for the PC versions of the game would be usable on the Xbox One version, and that the team hoped to bring them to the PlayStation 4 version eventually.[17][18] When asked about the failed effort to add a paid mod system to The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim, Howard stated there were no plans for a similar effort with Fallout 4.[19] The mods created by PC players through The Creation Kit, which contains the official modding tools, will be released for Xbox One players and PlayStation 4 in May 2016 and June 2016 respectively.[20]
Engine
Main article: Creation Engine

Fallout 4 is powered by Bethesda's Creation Engine, which was created originally for Skyrim[21]. Just after Fallout 3's release, the team devised numerous design objectives to meet for Skyrim—which was later updated for Fallout 4's next-gen hardware requirements. The updated Creation Engine allows for numerous improvements in graphical fidelity over Bethesda's previous efforts. For instance, the draw distance renders much further than previous Fallout games; and—in an interview on the engine for Skyrim—Howard provided an example where the player can stare at a small object such as a fork in detail, and then look up at a mountain and run to the top of it.

Dynamic lighting allows shadows to be created by any structure or item in the game world. In fact, Howard revealed in the E3 Press Conference that the updated Creation Engine allows for next-generation god rays and advanced volumetric lighting. The updated engine also features a variety of visual effects not present in previous Bethesda games such as motion blur, temporal anti-aliasing, height fog, dynamic dismemberment, screen space reflections, filmic tone mapping, an updated material system—for wet textures—among numerous others.[22] In fact, the updated engine allows the Bethesda team to add more dynamic lighting to every scene as well as “paint surfaces with realistic materials.”[23] In detail, Bethesda released an example on how the updated engine works: "When a rain storm rolls in, our new material system allows the surfaces of the world to get wet, and a new cloth simulation system makes cloth, hair, and vegetation blow in the wind."[24]

The updated Creation Engine also allows for a more advanced character creation system, which utilizes sculpting—forgoing the series of sliders present in previous games. In detail, the new character creation system introduces a new, freeform, entirely slider-free facial editor controlled via dynamic, real-time modeling interface.[25] The updated engine also allows for more fluid animations designed for next-generation hardware.

With regards to the aforementioned fluid animations, the updated engine also allows a much more open approach to conversations with NPCs—wherein the camera views can change depending on the player's preference from a first person view to a cinematic third person view—compared to Fallout 3's rigid and instanced conversation system. In fact, the protagonist features dynamic dialog, which is context sensitive, and allows players to back out of a conversation. In Howard’s words, "you are free to walk away any time, if you want, or punch him in the face."[26]
Rumors and hoaxes

In 2008, Pete Hines of Bethesda Softworks stated: "The whole reason we went out and acquired the license and that we now own Fallout is that we clearly intended to make more than one. This is not something we're going to do once and then go away and never do it again. When that will be or how long that will be God only knows, but we acquired it specifically because we wanted to own it and develop it and work on it like we do with The Elder Scrolls."[27]

On January 8, 2013, Fallout 3 voice actor Erik Dellums hinted via Twitter that his character, Three Dog, would be returning. In a follow-up tweet, he stated, "I was given permission to release that tease".[28] However, in July of the same year, Dellums tweeted that the game he is working on is not being produced by Bethesda Softworks, therefore it was not the anticipated new Fallout title.[29]

On November 13, 2013, an alleged ZeniMax-funded website, thesurvivor2299.com, was created. The site contained several coded messages and morse code, and most notably a timer believed to be counting down to an announcement or teaser trailer for Fallout 4, which was also done with Fallout 3; the messages and morse code was in turn translated by several Fallout fansites. On December 6, Bethesda responded in regards to the site stating; "PSA: If you don't hear it through an official channel like this, assume all rumors and speculation are false".[30] The site was revealed to be a hoax shortly thereafter.

In December 2013, Kotaku reported that Fallout 4 was indeed in development, having obtained leaked voice casting documents which they had confirmed to be real. The leaked documents indicated that the game would be set in Boston and described a mission set in "The Institute", a post-apocalyptic version of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The documents referenced areas mentioned but not shown in previous Fallout titles. The voice script page that was leaked begins with the usual introductory line spoken by Ron Perlman: "War. War never changes".[31] In February 2014, Bethesda game director Todd Howard was asked about new game announcements in which he replied: "We don't have a timeframe for our next game announcement, but I think it's gonna be a while".[32]

Following the announcement of Fallout 4, there was renewed interest in a June 2014 Reddit post by a user named SandraReed, who claimed to have played Fallout 4. She stated that she used to be a Bethesda employee and was fired for leaking information about the game.[33] In her post, SandraReed stated that the protagonist would have a speaking role and that the game would support the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. Kotaku noted that many of the details have proven to be incorrect, and most of those that were correct had already been covered earlier in the leaked details from Kotaku's 2013 article.[34]
Updates

After Fallout 4's release, Bethesda has released several patches to address some of the issues present at the game's launch. along with presenting new features that improve general gameplay. The first patch—coded as patch 1.2—fine-tuned the game by improving the frame rate in heavy areas around the game, such as in the Corvega factory. Patch 1.2 also fixed a few bugs and errors present at the launch of the game but interfered with unofficial mod support.[35][36] Bethesda then released patch 1.3 to improve the game's graphics on all platforms, along with presenting the game with new features such as an added status menu for settlers in settlements. With regard to the new graphical updates introduced in this patch, the PC platform was given a new weapon debris effect and a new ambient occlusion setting. The patch also fixed several bugs and glitches present in the game.[37] Patch 1.4 was designed to ready the game for the upcoming Creation Kit and downloadable content. Patch 1.4 also brought a variety of additions to the settlement building mechanic of the game by adding symbol to new content placed in by the modding community along with adding a variety of items, such as Raider and Supermutant decors. The patch also brought general improvements to the game's stability.[38] The latest patch—patch 1.5—added a revamped survival mode along with support for the upcoming downloadable content. The patch also brought bug fixes.[39]
Marketing and release
Announcement
A Volkswagen Type 2 customized to promote Fallout 4 at Gamescom 2015

On June 2, 2015, Bethesda published a countdown timer scheduled to expire on June 3, 2015 at 14:00 UTC.[40] The game's official website went live slightly ahead of schedule, revealing the game along with its box art and platforms. The game was released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One.[41][42] The site was taken down later but was put back up again at the scheduled time. The official trailer was released when the countdown timer expired,[4] and the game has been confirmed to take place in Boston and its surrounding Massachusetts countryside, as suggested by earlier rumors.[43][44] More details were given during Bethesda's E3 2015 press conference on June 14, 2015.[45][46]

Bethesda Game Studios confirmed that the development of Fallout 4 was finished on October 23, 2015.[47]
Marketing

Fallout 4 became available for pre-order immediately following the product announcement. The release date was set for November 10, 2015. In addition to the standard edition of the game, there is a collector's edition which includes a wearable replica of the Pip-Boy. This is able to house a smart phone device, which can then run the second screen functionality of the game.[48]
Downloadable content

On February 16, 2016, Bethesda announced details, prices, and release dates for the first three add-ons for Fallout 4.[49][50] The first DLC, Automatron, which allows players to build their custom robot companion by using robot parts, was released to the European and North American markets on March 22, 2016.[51] This was followed by Wasteland Workshop on April 12, 2016, which introduces new build options for settlements and the ability for players to put captured creatures or humans in a cage, and adds new decorations like neon lights and lettering.[52][53] The third DLC, titled Far Harbor, is a story expansion depicting a post-war Maine, and is set to be released on May 19, 2016.[54][55]
Reception
Reception
Aggregate score
Aggregator Score
Metacritic (XONE) 88/100[56]
(PS4) 87/100[57]
(PC) 84/100[58]
Review scores
Publication Score
Destructoid 7.5/10[59]
EGM 9/10[60]
Game Informer 9/10[61]
Game Revolution 4.5/5 stars[62]
GameSpot 9/10[63]
GamesRadar 5/5 stars[64]
GameTrailers 9/10[65]
Giant Bomb (PC) 4/5 stars[66]
(Consoles) 3/5 stars[67]
IGN 9.5/10[68]
PC Gamer (US) 88/100[69]
Polygon 9.5/10[70]
VideoGamer.com 9/10[71]

Fallout 4 received positive reviews. Aggregating review website Metacritic gave the Xbox One version 88/100 based on 35 reviews,[56] the PlayStation 4 version 87/100 based on 58 reviews[57] and the Microsoft Windows version 84/100 based on 34 reviews.[58]

GameSpot's Peter Brown awarded it a score of 9 out of 10, saying "Fallout 4 is an argument for substance over style, and an excellent addition to the revered open-world series." Brown praised the "thought-provoking" narrative, "intuitive" creation tools, the large amount of content, the overall combat, and the overall freedom the player is given, especially in world exploration and story progression. Brown's main criticisms were concerning the average visuals, the technical issues, and the unintuitive management of companions, the map, and the inventory.[63]

Game Informer's Andrew Reiner scored the game a 9 out of 10 and said: "Bethesda has created another game you can lose your life in. New experiences just keep coming, and you always have another perk to unlock." Reiner praised the "vastly improved" combat, the "denser" world, and the "brilliant" score, but had mixed feelings about the visuals, saying: "The visuals can be simultaneously breathtaking and a little ugly. The vistas and lighting are beautifully created, but some of the texture work is muddled and steals some of the finer details." Reiner was also relieved to not run into many glitches.[61]

Dan Stapleton of IGN scored the game a 9.5 out of 10 and wrote: "The world, exploration, crafting, atmosphere, and story of Fallout 4 are all key parts of this hugely successful sandbox role-playing game. Great new reasons to obsessively gather and hoard relics of happier times, strong companions, and sympathetic villains driving tough decisions make it an adventure I’ll definitely replay and revisit. Even the technical shakiness that crops up here and there can’t even begin to slow down its momentum."[68]

Phil Savage of PC Gamer mentioned that Fallout 4 is "a loving production. It's filled with care and attention to detail—like the expanded set of radio stations, or the way flash radiation storms bathe the world in a sickly, ominous green hue. It's a pleasure to pick through the world, to discover new sights, and to pick through the perks and customisation option to conceive the perfect character build, however bizarre. In short, many of Fallout 4's problems, like every Bethesda RPG before it, are a consequence of what makes them unforgettable."[72]

Polygon awarded it a score of 9.5 out of 10, saying "Fallout 4 brings great gameplay to match its world and ambiance".[70] PC Gamer awarded it a score of 88/100, calling it "A brilliant, massive sandbox of systems, albeit largely the same one Bethesda has been making for years."[69] Fallout 4 was also noted by Chris Livingston of PC Gamer that "The best stories in games aren’t the ones developers tell players, it’s the ones player tell themselves and each other. Bethesda RPGs have always given players ample room to ignore the official narrative and create their own characters, histories, motivations, and stories, and Fallout 4 is no exception."[73]

Destructoid gave the game a 7.5 out of 10, writing "a lot of the franchise's signature problems have carried over directly into Fallout 4."[74]
Sales

Fallout 4 sold 1.2 million copies on Steam in its first 24 hours of release.[75] The game also sold more digital than physical copies on day one of launch.[76] With almost 470,000 concurrent Steam players on launch day, Fallout 4 broke Grand Theft Auto V's record for having the most concurrent online players in a Steam game not developed by Valve Corporation.[77] The game grossed $750 million in shipped sales, with the total number of units being 12 million, also in the first 24 hours.[78]
Accolades

Fallout 4 received numerous awards and nominations from gaming publications such as GameSpot, GamesRadar, EGM, Game Revolution, IGN, and many more.[79] The game received a game of the year award from the 19th ceremony of the Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences [80]—also known as D.I.C.E.—among numerous nominations for the award from The Game Awards, Telegraph, PC Gamer, IGN and more.[81] It was also placed on various lists of the best games of 2015 in which GameSpot put it at sixth,[82] GamesRadar at fourth,[83] among others top lists. The game also received awards and nominations for Role-playing game of the year with it winning the award from Game Critics and D.I.C.E. with nominations from various other gaming publications.[81]
[show]List of awards and nominations for Fallout 4
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Hussain, Tamoor (June 3, 2015). "Fallout 4 Officially Confirmed for PC, Xbox One, PS4". GameSpot. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
Karmali, Luke (June 3, 2015). "Fallout 4 Officially Revealed With In-Game Trailer". IGN. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
Hernandez, Patricia (June 4, 2015). "All The Juicy Details Hidden In The Fallout 4 Trailer". Kotaku. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
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Karmali, Luke (February 10, 2015). "Bethesda Hosting its First Ever E3 Conference in 2015". IGN. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
Griffin, Andrew (June 3, 2015). "Fallout 4 announced: trailer and details revealed ahead of E3 launch". The Independent (Independent Print Limited). Retrieved June 3, 2015.
Osborn, Alex (October 23, 2015). "Fallout 4 Has Gone Gold – IGN". IGN. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
Miller, Ross (June 18, 2015). "Here's a first look at Fallout 4's Pip-Boy wearable". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
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Makuch, Eddie (March 21, 2016). "Here's Exactly When Fallout 4 Automatron Expansion Unlocks". GameSpot. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
Livington, Christopher (April 23, 2016). "At $5, Fallout 4's Wasteland Workshop is barely worth it". PC Gamer. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
Hernandez, Patricia. "Fallout 4's Next DLC Drops April 12th, Lets You Collect Monsters Like Pokémon". Kotaku. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
Sarker, Samit (February 16, 2016). "Fallout 4 getting three add-ons this spring and more later, season pass price going up". Polygon. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
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Carter, Chris (November 9, 2015). "Review: Fallout 4". Destructoid. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
Buchholtz, Matt (November 9, 2015). "Fallout 4 review". Electronic Gaming Monthly. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
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"BAFTA Games Awards 2016 Nominees Revealed". IGN. March 10, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2016.

External links

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HELEN
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PostPosted: Fri May 06, 2016 6:27 pm Reply with quoteBack to top

Fallout 2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Fallout 2
PC Game Fallout 2.jpg
Developer(s) Black Isle Studios
Publisher(s) Interplay Entertainment
Director(s) Tim Cain[1]
Chris Avellone[2]
Producer(s) Brian Fargo
Eric DeMilt
Fred Hatch
Designer(s) Chris Avellone[2]
Matthew J. Norton
Programmer(s) Jesse Reynolds
Chris Jones
Robert Hertenstein
Artist(s) Gary Platner
Jason D. Anderson
Leonard Boyarsky
Writer(s) Tim Cain[1]
R. Scott Campbell
Jason Taylor
Composer(s) Mark Morgan
Series Fallout
Platform(s)

Microsoft Windows
Mac OS X

Release date(s) September 30, 1998
Genre(s) Role-playing
Mode(s) Single player

Fallout 2: A Post Nuclear Role Playing Game is a role-playing open world video game developed by Black Isle Studios and published by Interplay in September 1998. While featuring a considerably larger game world and a far more extensive storyline, it largely uses similar graphics and game mechanics to those of Fallout.

The game's story takes place in 2241, 80 years after the events of Fallout and 164 years after the war.[3] It tells the story of the original hero's descendant and their quest to save their primitive tribe from starvation by finding an ancient environmental restoration machine known as the Garden of Eden Creation Kit (GECK).[4]

Contents

1 Gameplay
2 Plot
3 Reception
4 References
5 External links

Gameplay
See also: Gameplay in Fallout

Fallout 2 is a role-playing open world video game. The player is free to move at will until they enter into combat. Combat gives them a number of action points to move, fire, check their equipment, reload and the like. When a player uses up all of their action points, they end their turn and enemies start theirs. If the player survives unharmed, he or she has their action points restored. Injuries and poisons can reduce the number of action points available both in a single term and semi-permanently until combat ends and the player can be treated. Combat and completion of jobs or quests rewards the player with experience points with which they can level up their characters and apply beneficial perks to become more suited to the dangerous post-apocalyptic world. General gameplay consists of traveling and interacting with local inhabitants and organizations to complete goals and aid or inhibit the NPCs. The player's actions dictate what future story or gameplay opportunities are available. Mature themes such as alcohol consumption, drug usage and sex are present.

Organized crime, prostitution and slavery are major elements of the setting. Character creation is based on the SPECIAL role-playing system.
An example of dialogue between characters in Fallout 2.
Plot

In 2241, the primitive Arroyo suffers the worst drought on record. Faced with the calamity, the village elder asks the direct descendant of the Vault Dweller, referred to as the Chosen One, to perform the quest of retrieving a Garden of Eden Creation Kit (GECK) for Arroyo. The GECK is a device that can create thriving communities out of the post-apocalyptic wasteland.[4] The player, assuming the role of the Chosen One, is given nothing more than the Vault Dweller's jumpsuit, a RobCo PIPBoy 2000 handheld device, a Vault 13 water flask, a spear and some cash to start on his mission.

The player can eventually find Vault 13, the supposed location of a GECK, devoid of the majority of its former human inhabitants. The Chosen One returns to find his village captured by the remnants of the United States government known as the Enclave. The Enclave often terrorizes the inhabitants of continental United States with their supreme arsenal of advanced technology. The player, through various means, activates an ancient oil tanker and engages its autopilot, thus allowing him to reach the Enclave's main base on an offshore oil rig. It is revealed that the dwellers of Vault 13 were captured as well, to be used as test subjects for Forced Evolutionary Virus (FEV). Vault 13 was supposed to be closed for 200 years as part of a government experiment,[3] making them perfect test subjects. The Enclave modified the Forced Evolutionary Virus into an airborne disease, designed to attack any living creatures with mutated DNA. With all genetic impurities removed, the Enclave (who remain protected from radiation) could take over. The player frees both his fellow villagers from Arroyo and the Vault 13 dwellers from Enclave control and subsequently destroys the Enclave's oil rig, killing the President of the United States Richardson as well as a genetically modified Secret Service enforcer Frank Horrigan. In the end, the inhabitants of Vault 13 and the Arroyo villagers create a new prosperous community with the help of the GECK.
Reception
Reviews
Aggregate scores
Aggregator Score
GameRankings 87.13%[5]
Metacritic 86/100[6]
Review scores
Publication Score
GamePro 5/5[7]
GameSpot 8.8/10[8]
IGN 8.9/10[9]
PC Gamer (US) 89%[10]
Award
Publication Award
PC Gamer #3 Best RPG of All Time (2015)[11]

Fallout 2 received positive reviews from critics. Online review aggregators Metacritic and GameRankings gave it a score of 86 out of 100 based on 15 reviews, and 87.13% based on 26 reviews, respectively.[6][5] Positive reviewers praised the gameplay, storyline, and worthiness as a successor to the original Fallout, while detractors criticized frequent bugs and lack of improvement over the first game. Daniel Morris of GamePro praised the mix of action and character interaction as well as the non-linear gameplay.[7] IGN applauded the developers for the sizable game world, the writing, and "not fixing something that wasn't broken".[9] Game Revolution praised the game's depth and storyline, but criticized its graphics and interface.[12]

In 2013, GamesRadar ranked Fallout 2 number 68 on their list of top video games of all time.[13] That same year, IGN ranked it as the 28th best role-playing video game ever.[14] In 2015 PC Gamer ranked the game #3 on its list of best RPGs of all time.[11]
References

"The Top 100 Game Creators of All Time - 85. Tim Cain". IGN. 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
"The Top 100 Game Creators of All Time - 80. Chris Avellone". IGN. 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
Avellone, Chris (2002-03-08). "Fallout Bible 0". Black Isle. Archived from the original on 2006-02-10.
"The Story". Fallout 2 Website. Interplay. 1998. Archived from the original on April 2004. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
"Fallout 2 for PC". GameRankings. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved December 20, 2015.
"Fallout 2". From Metacritic. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
Morris, Daniel (2000-01-01). "Fallout 2". GamePro. Archived from the original on 2008-10-05. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
"Fallout 2 Review". GameSpot. 1998-12-09. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
"Fallout 2" (November 13, 1998). IGN. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
"PC Gamer Online". pcgamer.com. Archived from the original on 16 January 2000. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
Banks, Cory; Johnson, Leif (December 18, 2015). "The best RPGs of all time". PC Gamer. Future US. Retrieved December 20, 2015.
"A kiss to build a dream on...". Game Revolution. February 1, 1999. Retrieved 27 Oct 2013.
"GamesRadar Top 100". GamesRadar. February 15, 2013. p. 37. Retrieved December 18, 2013.

"IGN Top 100 RPGs (Fallout 2)". IGN.com. Retrieved December 18, 2013.

External links
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Book: Fallout series

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Categories:

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HELEN
Scarf-wearing n00b
Scarf-wearing n00b


Joined: 06 May 2016
Posts: 36
Location: Station to Station

PostPosted: Fri May 06, 2016 6:28 pm Reply with quoteBack to top

Fallout (video game)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the original Fallout game. For the article on the Fallout series, see Fallout (series).
Fallout
Fallout.jpg
Developer(s) Interplay Entertainment[1]
Publisher(s) Interplay Entertainment
Director(s) Feargus Urquhart[2]
Tim Cain[3]
Producer(s) Brian Fargo
Tim Cain
Designer(s) Christopher Taylor
David Hendee
Scott Everts
Programmer(s) Tim Cain[3]
Chris Jones
Jason Taylor
Artist(s) Leonard Boyarsky
Jason D. Anderson
Gary Platner
Writer(s) Scott Campbell
Brian Freyermuth
Mark O'Green
Composer(s) Mark Morgan
Series Fallout
Platform(s) MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, OS X
Release date(s) MS-DOS

NA September 30, 1997
EU 1997

Microsoft Windows

NA September 30, 1997
EU 1997

Mac OS

NA 1997

Mac OS X

NA 2002

Genre(s) Role-playing
Mode(s) Single-player

Fallout: A Post Nuclear Role Playing Game is an open world role-playing video game developed and published by Interplay Entertainment in 1997. The game has a post-apocalyptic and retro-futuristic setting, in the aftermath of a global nuclear war in an alternate history timeline mid-22nd century. The protagonist of Fallout is an inhabitant of one of the long-term shelters known as Vaults who is tasked to find the Water Chip to save other dwellers from water shortage.

Fallout is considered to be the spiritual successor to the 1988 role-playing video game Wasteland. It was initially intended to use Steve Jackson Games' system GURPS, but Interplay eventually used an internally developed system SPECIAL. The game was critically acclaimed and inspired a number of sequels and spin-off games, known collectively as the Fallout series.

Contents

1 Gameplay
1.1 SPECIAL system
2 Plot
2.1 Setting
2.2 Characters
2.3 Story
3 Development
3.1 Influences and references
4 Release
5 Reception
5.1 Retrospective
6 References
7 External links

Gameplay

Gameplay in Fallout centers around the game world, visiting locations and interacting with the local inhabitants. Occasionally, inhabitants will be immersed in dilemmas which the player may choose to solve in order to acquire karma and experience points. Fallout deviates from most role-playing video games in that it often allows for the player to complete tasks in multiple ways, often choosing solutions that are unconventional or even contrary to the original task, in which case the player may still be rewarded. The player's actions may ultimately dictate the ending of the game, or what future story or gameplay opportunities are available. Ultimately, players will encounter hostile opponents (if such encounters are not avoided using stealth or diplomacy), in which case they and the player will engage in combat. Non-combat portions of the game are typically played in real-time.

Combat in Fallout is turn-based. The game uses an action point system where in, each turn, multiple actions may be performed until all points in the pool have been expended. Different actions consume different numbers of points, and the maximum number of points that can be spent may be affected by such things as chems or perks. 'Melee' (hand to hand) weapons typically offer multiple attack types, such as 'Swing' and 'Thrust' for knives. Unarmed attacks offer many attack types, including 'Punch' and 'Kick'. Players may equip at most two weapons, and the player can switch between them at the click of a button. The Perception attribute determines characters' 'Sequence' number, which then determines the order of turns in combat; characters with a higher statistic in this attribute will be placed at an earlier position in the sequence of turns, and subsequently get new turns earlier. Perception also determines the maximum range of ranged weapons, and the chance to hit with them.

A diverse selection of recruitable non-player characters (NPCs) can be found to aid the player character in the post-apocalyptic wasteland. Examples include Ian, an experienced traveler and gunman who can equip a pistol or SMG; and Dogmeat, an NPC of a dog the player may recruit in Junktown by either wearing a leather jacket or feeding the dog an iguana-on-a-stick. Unlike in Fallout 2, there is no limit to the number of NPCs that the player may recruit, and NPCs' statistics and armor in Fallout remain unchanged through the entire game; only their weapons may be upgraded.
An example of dialogue between characters in Fallout.
SPECIAL system

The protagonist is governed by the system called SPECIAL (an acronym for "Strength, Perception, Endurance, Charisma, Intelligence, Agility and Luck"), designed specifically for Fallout and used in the other games in the series. The player begins Fallout by selecting one of three characters to play as the protagonist, or alternatively they can create one with custom attributes using the system. Character development is divided into four categories: attributes, skills, traits and perks. These have been copied or otherwise adapted in some form or another through the ensuing iterations of the series.

Strength, Perception, Endurance, Charisma, Intelligence, Agility and Luck are the seven basic attributes of every character in the game.[4] The SPECIAL stats continually add bonuses to skills. This is done 'on the fly', i.e. if the SPECIAL stats change, the bonuses are automatically and instantly adjusted. Some 'perks' and coded events within the game require a certain level of particular SPECIAL stats.

There are 18 different skills in the game, ranging in value from 0 to 200 percent. The starting values for Level 1 skills are determined by the player's seven basic attributes, and initially fall within the range of 0 to 50 percent. Every time the player gains a level, skill points are awarded that can be used to improve the character's skills. The player may choose to tag three skills that will improve at twice the normal rate and receive a bonus at the start. Skills are divided into three categories: combat, active and passive. Books, although scarce in the early game, can be found throughout the game world, and permanently improve a specific skill when read. However, after a skill reaches a certain level, books no longer have an impact. Some NPCs can also improve skills via training. Some skills are also improved by having certain items equipped. For instance, a lockpick improves lock-picking skills. Stimulants can also temporarily boost a player's skills, however, they often have adverse effects such as addiction and withdrawal.

Traits are special character qualities which can have significant effects on gameplay. At character creation, the player may choose up to two traits. Traits typically carry benefits coupled with detrimental effects.[4] For example, the trait "Small Frame" improves agility by one point, but negatively affects maximum carrying capacity. Once a trait is chosen, it is impossible to change, except by using the "Mutate" perk which allows a player to change one trait, one time.

Perks are a special element of the level up system. Every three levels (or every four if the player chooses the "Skilled" trait), the player is presented with a list of perks and can choose one to improve their character. Perks grant special effects, most of which are not obtainable via the normal level up system. These include letting the player perform more actions per round, or being able to heal wounds faster. Unlike traits, perks are purely beneficial; they are offset only by the infrequency with which they are acquired.

The game also tracks the moral quality of the player character's actions using a statistic called Karma, as well as a series of reputations. Karma points are awarded for doing good deeds, and are subtracted for doing evil deeds. The effect of this statistic during the course of the game is minimal; however, the player character may receive one of a number of "reputations", that act like perks, for meeting a certain threshold of such actions, or for engaging in an action that is seen as singularly and morally reprehensible.
Plot
Setting

Fallout is set in a timeline which deviated from our own between the end of World War II and the start of the Apollo 11 missions, where technology, politics and culture followed a different course, therefore, while technology advanced, cultural and societal progress stagnated, giving the general world appearance of 1950s' art deco, while having advanced technology.

In the 21st century, a worldwide conflict is brought on by global petroleum shortage. Several nations enter Resource Wars over the last of non-renewable commodities, namely oil and uranium from 2052 to 2077. China invades Alaska in the winter of 2066, causing the United States to go to war with China and using Canadian resources to supply their war efforts, despite Canadian complaints. Eventually the United States violently annexes Canada in February 2076 and reclaims Alaska nearly a year later. After years of conflict, on October 23, 2077, a global nuclear war occurs. It is not known who strikes first, but in less than two hours most major cities are destroyed. The effects of the war do not fade for the next hundred years and as a consequence, human society has collapsed leaving only survivor settlements barely able to eke out a living in the barren wasteland, while a few live through the occurrence in underground fallout shelters known as Vaults. One of these, Vault 13, is the protagonist's home in Southern California, where the game begins in 2161, 84 years after the war.
Characters

The player controls a vault resident sent into the wasteland to save the vault. The player can create a custom protagonist or choose to be one of three already available; Albert Cole, a negotiator and charismatic leader, whose background is somewhat in the legal system; Natalia Dubrovhsky, a talented acrobat and intelligent and resourceful granddaughter of a Russian diplomat in the Soviet consulate in Los Angeles, and Max Stone, the largest person in the Vault, known for his strength and stamina but lacking intelligence. Each of the three characters present either a diplomatic, stealthy or combative approach to the game. Games set later in the Fallout series refer to the player's protagonist as "the Vault Dweller," and official canon states the Vault Dweller was a male, but his name is unspecified.

The player is also allowed to recruit three companions to aid them in their quest – Ian, a guard in Shady Sands, Tycho, a desert ranger in Junktown, and Katja, a member of the Followers of the Apocalypse living in the Boneyard. Other characters in the game include Aredesh, the leader of Shady Sands, Killian Darkwater, the mayor of Junktown, the Master, the leader of the super mutant army, and Morpheus, the master's right-hand as the leader of the Children of the Cathedral.
Story

In Vault 13, the Water Chip, a computer chip responsible for the water recycling and pumping machinery of the vault, malfunctions. With 150 days before the Vault's water reserves run dry, the Vault Overseer tasks the protagonist, the Vault Dweller, with finding a replacement.[5] He or she is given a portable tablet-like device called the "Pip-Boy 2000" that keeps track of map-making, objectives, and bookkeeping. Armed with the Pip-Boy 2000 and meager equipment, the main character is sent off on the quest. The player has free rein across the Fallout world to travel where they wish and do as they like, but other games clarify what the Vault Dweller canonically did.

The player character travels to Vault 15, the closest known Vault that may be able to provide help, but finds it collapsed into ruin and abandoned. The survivors of Vault 15 have founded a town named Shady Sands, and the player character is given the options to defend them from the Khans, a group of raiders that attack the town, and radscorpions, mutated scorpions that plague the town's herds. The player character then travels south to Junktown, where they can help the mayor, Killian Darkwater, bring the corrupt casino head Gizmo to justice, or help Gizmo assassinate Killian to take over the town. Further south the player character finds The Hub, a bustling merchant city, where the player has the option to hire water caravans to aid Vault 13 and extend their estimated survival by 100 days. With clues from the Hub, the player character travels to Necropolis, a city of mutated humans called ghouls. Under the city the player finds Vault 12 and recovers a Water Chip.

Upon returning the chip, the Vault is saved, but the Overseer is concerned about the reports of large mutated humans the player character encountered, dubbed "super mutants." Believing the mutations too widespread and extreme to be natural, and that they pose a threat to the Vault, the Overseer charges the player character to find the source of the mutations and stop them. The player finds aid in the Brotherhood of Steel, remnants of the United States government and army that survived the war and now research technology. The Brotherhood supplies the player character with equipment and information on the super mutants. The player character travels to the Boneyard, the ruins of Los Angeles, and finds the cult-like Children of the Cathedral operating around the wasteland are a front for the Master, using the Children to preach his message to wastelanders and get them to submit to him peacefully.

The player character explores the Cathedral of the Children and finds a prototype Vault beneath it where the Master commands his army. Disguised as one of the Children, the player character infiltrates the Vault and destroys the Master. The player then travels north to a military base, where the Master was using a mutagen called the Forced Evolutionary Virus to mutate humans into his super mutants. The player character destroys the base, stopping the creation of more super mutants and splintering their army. The player character returns to the Vault and is greeted at the entrance by the Overseer. The Overseer is happy that the Vault's safety is secured, but fears the player character's adventure has changed them, and that hero worship of them in the Vault may encourage others to leave. For the greater good of the Vault and to preserve its isolation, the player character is exiled into the wasteland.

If the player does not return to the Vault with the Water Chip before the Vault's water reserves run out, the game is automatically lost. In earlier versions of the game, if the player did not destroy the military base and the Master before 500 days passed, the mutants found Vault 13 and invaded it, resulting in an automatic loss. This time limit is shortened to 400 days if the player hires water caravans from the Hub, as the caravans traveling to the Vault allow the mutant scouts to find it easier. The 1.1 patch of the game, and subsequent re-releases of the game, extend this time limit to 13 years, effectively giving the player enough time to do as they wish. There is also an optional alternate ending triggered if the player character has a negative reputation or the "Bloody Mess" trait, where after the Overseer exiles them, the player character shoots and kills him. In various points of the game, the player also has the choice to join the super mutants, which results in a small video showing the super mutants rampaging the Vault and ends the game.
Development

Fallout was created by Interplay Entertainment as a spiritual successor to their 1988 post-apocalyptic role-playing game Wasteland. It is not an official sequel, although it was initially developed as one, because Interplay did not have the rights to Wasteland at that point.[6][7] The budget for the game was approximately three million dollars.[8] In the early stages of planning, other settings based on the GURPS role-playing game system handbooks were considered, including a time-travel theme with aliens and dinosaurs.[9] The game's working titles included GURPS: Wasteland and Vault 13: A GURPS Post-Nuclear Adventure. The final title Fallout was suggested by the Interplay boss Brian Fargo.[10]

Tim Cain created the game engine and most of the design for the game. He worked on it, by himself, developing the mechanics of the design and incorporating a then-popular pen and paper role-playing game system GURPS by Steve Jackson Games,[11] but that deal fell through. According to IGN, this was due to Steve Jackson Games objecting to the excessive amounts of violence and gore included in the game,[11] forcing Interplay to change the already implemented GURPS system to the internally developed SPECIAL system. According to Steve Jackson Games, this was a decision taken by Interplay, with no reason given.[12][13]

Cain said they "all loved X-COM" and that the original version of Fallout (known as Vault 13, before the game was redesigned after they lost the GURPS license) featured combat very similar to the battles in UFO: Enemy Unknown.[14]

Cain worked with fellow employees at Interplay in their spare time, starting in 1994. He built the engine alone in six months, given no money and no resources, only time. Later, Cain assembled a team of 30 people to work on the game for the next three years. The game was nearly cancelled after Interplay acquired the licenses to the Forgotten Realms and Planescape Dungeons & Dragons franchises, but Cain convinced Interplay to let him finish the work on his project. Later, after the success of Diablo, Cain successfully resisted the pressure to convert the game to multiplayer and real-time based.[10]

A number of well-known actors were cast as voice-talents. The game's narrations were performed by Ron Perlman and the prologue featured one of the foremost iconic catch phrases of the game series: "War. War never changes"; Perlman was re-invited to, and narrated, several later Fallout games. Other appearances included Richard Dean Anderson as Killian, David Warner as Morpheus, Tony Shalhoub (credited as Tony Shalub) as Aradesh, Brad Garrett as Harry, Keith David as Decker, Richard Moll as Cabot, and Tony Jay as The Mutant Lieutenant. Interplay intended to use "I Don't Want to Set the World on Fire" by The Ink Spots for the theme song, but could not license the song because of a copyright issue.[15] This song was later licensed by Bethesda for Fallout 3. The song "Maybe" by the same artists was used instead for the original Fallout theme song.

At one point in Fallout's development, in Junktown, if the player aided local sheriff Killian Darkwater in killing the criminal Gizmo, Killian would take his pursuit of the law much too far, to the point of tyranny, and force Junktown to stagnate. However, if the player killed Killian for Gizmo, then Gizmo would help Junktown prosper for his own benefit. The game's publisher did not like this bit of moral ambiguity and had the outcomes changed to an alternate state, where aiding Killian results in a more palatable ending.[15]
Influences and references

Fallout draws much from 1950s pulp magazines, classic science fiction films such as Forbidden Planet and superhero comics of Atomic Age: computers use vacuum tubes instead of transistors; energy weapons exist and resemble those used by Flash Gordon. Fallout's menu interfaces are designed to resemble advertisements and toys of the same period; for example, the illustrations on the character sheet mimic those of the board game Monopoly, and one of the game's loading screens is an Indian Head test card. A lack of this retro stylization was one of the things for which the Fallout spin-offs were criticized, as retro-futurism is a hallmark of the Fallout series.

There are also many references to various works of post-apocalyptic science fiction, such as Mad Max and Radioactive Dreams. One of the first available armors is a one-sleeved leather jacket that resembles the jacket worn by Mel Gibson in Mad Max 2: The Road Warrior. The player can also get a dog, as in Mad Max 2 and A Boy and His Dog, named Dogmeat. Fallout contains numerous Easter eggs referencing 1950s and 1960s pop culture. Many of these can be found in random encounters, which include a vanishing TARDIS from Doctor Who (complete with sound effect), an enormous reptilian footprint, and a crashed UFO containing a painting of Elvis Presley. The game also refers to other pieces of fiction, including WarGames and Blade Runner.

Although the time frame of Wasteland is completely different from Fallout—and despite the fact that the game's designers deny that Fallout or Fallout 2 take place in the same universe as Wasteland—there are many references to the events and the style of Wasteland in the Fallout series, which is why Fallout is sometimes regarded as a spiritual successor to Wasteland. For example, the protagonist can meet an NPC named Tycho, who mentions that he is a Desert Ranger and, under the right conditions, will talk of his grandfather, who told him about Fat Freddy, a character from Las Vegas in that game.
Release
[icon] This section requires expansion. (October 2013)

The game, along with its two follow-ups, Fallout 2 and Fallout Tactics: Brotherhood of Steel, were later sold together as part of the Fallout Trilogy.[16] Fallout and Fallout 2 also appeared together in "dual jewel" format.[17]
Reception
Reception
Aggregate scores
Aggregator Score
GameRankings 89.69%[18]
Metacritic 89/100[19]
Review scores
Publication Score
AllGame 4.5/5 stars[20]
CGW 4.5/5 stars[18]
GamePro 4.5/5 stars[18]
Game Revolution A- (Mac)[21]
GameSpot 8.7/10[22]
PC Gamer (US) 90/100[23]
PC Zone 91/100[18]
Strategy Plus 4.75/5 stars[24]
Awards
Publication Award
GameSpot RPG of the Year (1997)[25]
Computer Gaming World Role-Playing Game of the Year (1998)[26]

Fallout was met with a very favorable critical reception. Computer Gaming World called it "a game that clearly was a labor of love...with humor, style, and brains to spare, and with a wonderfully refreshing emphasis on character development and decision making."[24] PC Gamer opined this "tightly integrated mix of combat, storytelling and puzzling keeps the pace brisk and lively, and it'll keep you coming back for more."[24] According to Strategy Plus, "in an age where many are predicting the death of traditional RPGs at the hands of multiplayer extravaganzas, Fallout is a glowing example of the genre, one which positively radiates quality."[24]

The game won the "RPG of the Year" award by GameSpot in 1997[25] and the "RPG of the Year" by Computer Gaming World in 1998, called "quite simply the best RPG to hit the PC in years."[26] It was nominated in the Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences' first annual Interactive Achievement Awards in the categories "Computer Role Playing Game of the Year" and "Outstanding Achievement in Sound and Music".[27]
Retrospective

Over the years since its release, Fallout was ranked as the fourth (2001), tenth (2005), 13th (2007), 21st (2008) and seventh (2010) best PC game of all time by PC Gamer,[28][29][30][31][32] fifth (2007) and 19th (2009) top PC game of all time by IGN,[33][34] and 21st (2007) best PC game ever by PC Zone.[35] IGN also ranked it as the 55th (2005) and 33rd (2007) top video game of all time overall,[36][37] as well as the 34th top RPG in 2013.[38]

Fallout has been inducted into "Hall of Fame" or equivalent of Computer Gaming World, GameSpot, GameSpy and IGN, among others.[39][40][41][42] In 2012, Fallout was exhibited as part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum's "The Art of Video Games" exhibition under the category of "adventure" games (along with Fallout 3).

In addition, Fallout was included on the lists of top ten best endings and best game worlds by GameSpot in 2000,[43][44] and top openings by Game Informer in 2008,[45] while Polish web portal Wirtualna Polska ranked it as the sixth most addictive classic game.[46]
References

Cheong, Ian. "Game Info". Lionheart Chronicles. GameSpy. Retrieved 2006-07-25.
"The Top 100 Game Creators of All Time - 89. Feargus Urquhart". IGN. 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
"The Top 100 Game Creators of All Time - 85. Tim Cain". IGN. 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
Rollings, Andrew; Adams, Ernest (2003). Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on game design. New Riders. pp. 108, 357–360. ISBN 1-59273-001-9.
Rollings, Andrew; Adams, Ernest (2003). Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on game design. New Riders. pp. 108, 357–360. ISBN 1-59273-001-9.
"Fallout Classic Revisited". Gamespot. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
Barton, Matt (2007-02-23). "Part 2: The Golden Age (1985–1993)". The History of Computer Role-Playing Games. Gamasutra. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
"Back To Black Isle: Fargo On Obsidian Joining Wasteland 2". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
Matt Barton (June 27, 2010). "Fallout with Tim Cain, Pt. 1". Matt Chat. Episode 66. 647 minutes in. Armchair Arcade.
Pitts, Russ (3 Mar 2012). "Fallout: The game that almost never was". Polygon. Retrieved 19 Oct 2013.
"IGN Presents the History of Fallout". IGN. 2010-07-21. p. 3. Retrieved 2015-08-02.
"Daily Illuminator, February 19, 1997". Steve Jackson Games. 1997-02-19. Retrieved 2015-08-02.
"Daily Illuminator, March 14, 1997". Steve Jackson Games. 1997-03-14. Retrieved 2015-08-02.
Fallout Classic Revisited, GameSpot, 9 March 2012.
Avellone, Chris (2002-11-06). "Fallout Bible #9". Black Isle Studios. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
"Fallout Trilogy". IGN. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
"Fallout/Fallout 2 [Dual Jewel]". Gamervision. 2001. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
"Fallout for PC". GameRankings. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
"Fallout (pc) reviews at Metacritic.com". Metacritic. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
Suciu, Peter. "Fallout – Review". allgame. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
Cooke, Mark (June 5, 2004). "Fallout review for the MAC". Game Revolution. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
Desslock (November 21, 1997). "Fallout Review". GameSpot. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
Vaughn, Todd (January 1998). "Fallout". PC Gamer US. Archived from the original on March 12, 2000. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
As cited in an advertisement in Computer Gaming World 164 (March 1998), page 62.
"Fallout 2 Previews". GameSpot. Retrieved 2010-11-15. "Greg Kasavin finds out what's in store for the sequel to GameSpot's 1997 RPG of the Year, including story details and tons of screenshots."
Computer Gaming World 164 (March 1998), page 77.
"1998 1st Interactive Achievement Awards". Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences. 1998. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
"50 Best Games of All Time", PC Gamer, October 2001
"50 Best Games of All Time", PC Gamer, April 2005
"PC Gamer's Best 100". PC Gamer. August 13, 2007. Retrieved 2010-11-15.
"PC Gamer's Top 100". PC Gamer. August 5, 2008. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
"PC Gamer's top 100 PC Games of all time". PC Gamer. February 5, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-15.
Adams, Dan; Butts, Steve; Onyett, Charles (2007-03-16). "Top 25 PC Games of All Time". IGN. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
Ocampo, Jason; Butts, Steve; Haynes, Jeff (August 6, 2009). "Top 25 PC Games of All Time". IGN. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
"The 101 best PC games ever". PC Zone. May 20, 2007. Retrieved 2010-11-15.
"IGN's Top 100 Games". Top100.ign.com. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
IGN Top 100 Games 2007 |33 Fallout
"IGN Top 100 RPGs (Fallout)". IGN.com. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
"CGW's Hall of Fame". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
"The Greatest Games of all Time". Retrieved 2010-11-17.
Buecheler, Christopher (December 30, 2000). "The GameSpy Hall of Fame: Fallout". GameSpy. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
"IGN Videogame Hall Of Fame: Fallout". IGN. 2008. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
"Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2000-03-02. Archived from the original on 2000-03-02. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
"Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2004-10-26. Archived from the original on 2004-10-26. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
"The Top Ten Video Game Openings," Game Informer 187 (November 2008): 38.

6. Fallout – Gry, które zabrały nam dzieciństwo – najbardziej uzależniające produkcje sprzed lat – Imperium gier, WP.PL (Polish)

External links
Book icon

Book: Fallout series

Mirror of the original website
Fallout at the Wayback Machine (archived April 15, 1997)

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Gametitle-FO3
Icon disambig
This page is about the game produced by Bethesda Softworks. For the canceled Fallout 3 by Black Isle Studios, see Van Buren.
For an overview of our Fallout 3-related articles, see Portal:Fallout 3.
Game
Fallout 3
developer
Bethesda Game Studios
publisher
Bethesda Softworks
Ubisoft (GER)
release date
October 28, 2008 (US)
October 31, 2008 (EU, AU)
December 4, 2008 (JP)
genre
Role-playing game
engine
Gamebryo
modes
Single player
rating
BBFC: 18
CERO: Z
ESRB: M
OFLC: MA15+
PEGI: 18+
OFLC (NZ): 18+
platforms
Microsoft Windows XP, Windows 7, 8 or Vista
Xbox 360
PlayStation 3
media
Blu-ray disc, DVD, digital download
system requirements
Minimum requirements: Windows XP/Vista
7GB free harddisk space
1GB System RAM (XP)/ 2GB System RAM (Vista)
2.4 GHz Intel Pentium 4 or equivalent processor
Direct X 9.0c compliant video card with 256MB RAM (NVIDIA 6800 or better/ATI X850 or better)
More...
Availability
PC
Steam
Steam (Game of the Year edit.)
Direct2Drive
Xbox
Xbox Live
PlayStation
PSN


Prepare for the Future...


Fallout 3 is a post-apocalyptic computer and console open-ended, action role-playing game developed by Bethesda Game Studios and published by Bethesda Softworks. It is the third installment in the Fallout series (5th overall) and a sequel to Interplay's Fallout and Fallout 2. It was released on October 28, 2008 in North America, on October 31, 2008 in Europe and on December 4, 2008 in Japan. It is available on the PC, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3. On November 11, 2015, Fallout 3 became backward's compatible exclusively for Xbox One.

The game takes place in the year 2277, 200 years after the Great War, on the East Coast of what used to be the United States, mostly in Washington, D.C., Southwest Maryland, Western Pennsylvania and Northeast Virginia. The gameplay features include real-time combat and first or third person perspective, in contrast to the previous games, which were turn-based and isometric.
Contents[show]
Setting and story
Setting
Concept02B-1-

Capitol Hill
Main article: Fallout world

The game is set in a post-apocalyptic, retro-futuristic Washington, D.C. following the Great War between the U.S., China, the Soviet Union and other countries. The Great War occurred on October 23, 2077 which caused immense damage and destruction despite lasting less than two hours. Before the Great War, there were the Resource Wars that nearly crippled the world and brought riots to the streets, during which the United Nations disbanded, and an F.E.V. plague coupled with global terrorism rendered the United States paranoid of both real and imagined communist plots. Canada was annexed by the United States in order to help the U.S. war effort against the Chinese in Alaska. The fact that Canada had the plentiful resources of nearly untouched wilderness made America's effort well worth the protection the U.S.A. promised to provide.
Story
Main article: Fallout 3 plot

The introductory sequence introduces the Lone Wanderer (player) to their character's father James, a doctor and scientist in Vault 101. James frequently makes comments about the player character's deceased mother Catherine, and her favorite Bible passage, Revelation 21:6, which speaks of "the waters of life".

The main quest begins after the player is forced to flee Vault 101 when James leaves the vault, throwing it into anarchy and causing the paranoid Overseer to send his security force after the player. The search for James takes the character on a journey through the Wasteland, first to the nearby town of Megaton, named for the undetonated atomic bomb at the center of town, then the Galaxy News Radio station, whose enthusiastic DJ Three Dog gives the player the moniker of "The Lone Wanderer". The player travels to Rivet City, a derelict aircraft carrier now serving as a fortified human settlement. Here the player meets Doctor Li, a scientist who worked alongside the player's father. Doctor Li informs the player of Project Purity, a plan conceived by Catherine and James to purify all the water in the Tidal Basin and eventually the entire Potomac River with a giant water purifier built in the Jefferson Memorial. However, continued delays and Catherine's death during childbirth put an end to the project, and James took the player's character as a newborn to raise them in the safety of Vault 101.

After investigating the Jefferson Memorial, the Lone Wanderer tracks James to Vault 112, and frees him from a virtual reality program being run by the Vault's sadistic Overseer, Dr. Braun. James and the player return to Rivet City, and James reveals he sought out Braun for information on the Garden of Eden Creation Kit (G.E.C.K.), a device that contains the components needed to finally activate Project Purity. James and Doctor Li lead a team of Rivet City scientists to the memorial with intent to restart the project, but the memorial is invaded by the Enclave, a powerful military organization formed from the remnants of the pre-War United States government. James floods the project's control room with radiation to stop the Enclave military leader, Colonel Augustus Autumn, from taking control of it, killing himself (but Autumn survives), his last words urging his child to run. The Lone Wanderer and Dr. Li flee to the ruins of the Pentagon, now a base for the Brotherhood of Steel and now known as the Citadel. With Project Purity still inoperational even with the Enclave occupying the site, the player travels to Vault 87 to find a G.E.C.K. and finish James's work. The player finds the Vault to be a testing site for the FEV (Forced Evolutionary Virus), and the source of the Super Mutants in the Capital Wasteland. After the player acquires the G.E.C.K., the Wanderer is ambushed by the Enclave and captured.

At the Enclave base at Raven Rock, the player is freed from their cell by the Enclave leader, President John Henry Eden, who requests a private audience with them. En route to his office however, Colonel Autumn defies Eden's orders and takes command of the Enclave military, ordering them to kill the player. Fighting their way to Eden's office, the player discovers Eden is actually a sentient ZAX series supercomputer who took control of the Enclave after their defeat in Fallout 2 on the West Coast thirty years ago. Eden wishes to repeat the plan of then-President Dick Richardson using Project Purity, infecting the water with a modified strain of FEV that will make it toxic to any mutated life. This plan will kill most life in the wasteland including humans, but the Enclave, due to their genetic "purity" as a result of their isolation, will be immune and free to take control of the area. The Wanderer, provided with a sample of the new F.E.V., is given a choice to either leave peacefully or convince Eden to self-destruct the entire base. The Lone Wanderer escapes Raven Rock and returns to the Citadel.

With the knowledge they possess, the G.E.C.K. and the means to activate Project Purity, the Brotherhood assault the Jefferson Memorial, spearheaded by a giant robot named Liberty Prime. In the control room of Project Purity the player confronts Colonel Autumn, and has the choice to persuade him to give up or kill him. Dr. Li informs the player that the purifier is ready to be activated, but the activation code must be input manually, and also that the control room is flooded with lethal amounts of radiation. The Lone Wanderer is forced to choose between sending Sarah Lyons of the Brotherhood inside the extremely irradiated purifier or entering themselves. Whoever enters into the chamber inputs the code hinted at through the game, that being 21:6, and dies from a radiation spike.

If the "Broken Steel" DLC is installed, the player survives if they activate it themselves, but they also have the option of sending one of their radiation-immune companions to enter the code and start the purifier with no casualties. The player also has the possibility to enter the F.E.V. sample into the water prior to activation, having adverse post-ending effects on the game's side quests.
Cast

Ron Perlman - Narrator
Liam Neeson - James, the player character’s father.
Malcolm McDowell - Enclave President John Henry Eden
Peter Gil - Enclave military commander Colonel Augustus Autumn
Heather Marie Marsden - Sarah Lyons
Erik Todd Dellums - Three Dog
Wes Johnson - Mister Burke
Craig Sechler - Butch
Odette Annable - Amata

Gameplay
VATS

V.A.T.S.
Main article: Fallout 3 gameplay
Character system
Main articles: Fallout 3 SPECIAL, Fallout 3 perks, Fallout 3 skills

Main character creation occurs as the player experiences the character's childhood. The player decides the character's general appearance using a Gene Projection, conducted by the father before the mother dies. Afterwards, the father removes his surgeon's mask to reveal a face similar to the one chosen by the player for the character; your father's race will also be the same as your own no matter what. As a child in the Vault, the character receives a book titled "You're SPECIAL," whereupon the player can set the character's seven primary aptitudes. The character receives training weapons and a Pip-Boy 3000 later on during childhood, and the player's performance in various tests determines the rest of the attributes. Additionally, several quests inside the Vault are able to influence the player character's relationship with his or her father. Skills and Perks are similar to those in previous games: the player chooses three Tag Skills out of 13 to be the character's specialties. Five skills have been cut out from the game (Fallout and Fallout 2 had 18 skills). First Aid and Doctor have been integrated into Medicine, Throwing and Traps have been merged into Explosives, Steal integrated into Sneak, and both Outdoorsman and Gamble have been removed completely. The maximum level the player can achieve is level 20 (which is to be raised to 30 after purchase of the third DLC installment, along with the ability to continue your game after the main story missions are complete). The Traits from the previous Fallout installments were combined with Perks in Fallout 3, and the player can choose a new Perk each time after gaining a level.
Combat
Main article: Fallout 3 combat

The Vault-Tec Assisted Targeting System, or V.A.T.S., is an active pause combat system implemented in the game. While using V.A.T.S., the otherwise real-time combat is paused. Attacks in V.A.T.S. cost action points, and the player can target specific body areas for attacks to inflict specific injuries. When attacks are selected, V.A.T.S. will then execute the attack in real-time slow motion, allowing the gory deaths in the game to be shown in great detail. The player will take 90% reduced damage from enemies during this sequence. It should be noted that while the player has a 15% increased critical hit chance while using V.A.T.S., weapon degradation per shot is greatly increased, forcing the player to strike a balance between using more ammunition or losing guns more quickly. This trade-off allows for two very different play styles throughout the game.
Items
Main article: Fallout 3 items

A dynamic facet of gameplay is that firearms wear out over time of use. As a weapon degenerates, its damage is reduced and it loses accuracy. However, worn out firearms of the same type can be combined to make more reliable and powerful weapons. Weapon schematics can also be found and used to create various devices such as the Rock-It Launcher that can fire various items such as lunchboxes and stuffed animals, or the bottlecap mine, made out of a Vault-Tec lunchbox, cherry bombs, sensor modules and bottle caps. Along with equipping various weapons, the player can also utilize different armors and clothing that may have effects that can alter various skills. For example, a pair of mechanic's coveralls may boost the player's repair skill while it is worn. Armor and clothing come in two main parts for the head and body, allowing a player to wear different combinations of hats and armor as well as masks and facial clothing which can be worn with hats. Also, a player's inventory has a specified weight limit, preventing a player from carrying too many items. Story-related or essential items like Ammunition have no weight, due to the developer not wishing to bog down inventory management. Your weight limit will increase if you increase your Strength stat in SPECIAL.
Party
Main article: Fallout 3 companions

The player can have a maximum party of three, consisting of themself, Dogmeat, and a single non-player character. In addition to having Dogmeat in your party you are able to send him out on his own to search for items such as weapons and ammunition, radiation medicine, and stimpaks. Dogmeat can be killed during the game if the player misuses him or places him in a severely dangerous situations such as leading him into the Deathclaw Sanctuary. He cannot be replaced, unless you have the Broken Steel add on, in which you can choose a perk allowing you to recruit Dogmeat's puppy (Puppies!). If the player kills Dogmeat one can acquire two followers. Dogmeat and Dogmeat's puppies can be given stimpaks to heal them if needed. In the PC version of the game, Dogmeat can then be resurrected via console commands and will continue with the player unaffected. The player's party can further be extended, with several temporary quest non-player characters that will stay with them until the quest related to the non-player character is completed, if their quest is never completed however, many will stay permanently with the player until killed.
Karma
Main article: Karma

The Karma system is an important feature in Fallout's gameplay. A player's actions, including conversation and combat choices, affects the player's status in the game world; a player who makes good decisions is received more positively by non-player characters, and a player that makes bad decisions has the opposite reaction. Crimes can also be committed by a player, and whichever faction or group that is harmed by a crime are fully aware of the player's action in most cases. Other factions that were not affected by the crime will not be aware of it, and since a town is usually its own faction, news of a crime committed in one town will not spread to another. Beware however, good or evil deeds will cause a bounty by the opposite alignment group. Talon Company (If you are good) or the Regulators (if you've been bad) will ambush you randomly, and are not bound to any particular area, they can appear anywhere in the wastes. Factions can range in size and boundaries, however, and may not be restricted to a single area. The game world itself was planned to be significantly smaller than that of Oblivion's but is now similar in size.[1]
Changes from previous Fallout games
Lone Wanderer-SMG

Fallout 3 in game.

While Fallout and Fallout 2 feature turn-based combat and top-down isometric view in a 2-D engine, Fallout 3 features real-time combat and first or third person view in a 3-D engine. Fallout Tactics and the canceled Van Buren featured both turn-based and real-time combat and a top-down view.
Perks and Traits have been merged. In Fallout and Fallout 2, Traits were chosen at character creation, and were commonly a combination of a powerful advantage and a potent disadvantage, where Perks were purely advantageous.
In the SPECIAL character system, the number of skills have been reduced from 18 to 13, traits have been removed and perks are selected every level instead of every 3 to 4 levels.

S.P.E.C.I.A.L

S.P.E.C.I.A.L stands for Strength, Perception, Endurance, Charisma, Intelligence, Agility and Luck. These stats determine which kind of person your character will be.
Development history
Interplay
Main article: Van Buren
Vbtitle

Van Buren Main menu

Fallout 3 was initially under development by Black Isle Studios, a studio owned by Interplay Entertainment, under the working title Van Buren. Interplay Entertainment closed down Black Isle Studios before the game could be completed, and the license to develop Fallout 3 was sold for a $1,175,000 minimum guaranteed advance against royalties to Bethesda Softworks, a studio primarily known as the developer of the The Elder Scrolls series.[2] Bethesda's Fallout 3 however, was developed from scratch, using neither Van Buren code, nor any other materials created by Black Isle Studios. In May 2007, a playable technology demo of the canceled project was released to the public.[3]
Bethesda
FO3 poster

Poster of Fallout 3. E3 2006 expo

Bethesda stated it would be working on Fallout 3 in July 2004,[4] but principal development did not begin until after The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion was completed.[5] Bethesda announced their intention to make Fallout 3 similar to the previous two games, focusing on non-linear game play, a good story, and true "Fallout humor." Bethesda also stated the game is targeted for a rating of M for Mature, and would have the same sort of adult themes and violence that are characteristic of the Fallout series. Fallout 3 uses a version of the same Gamebryo engine as Oblivion, and was developed by the same team. Initially Bethesda held the right to make only 3 Fallout games with royalties to be paid to Interplay.[6]

In 2006, Bethesda bought the full Fallout franchise leaving Interplay the right to make Project V13. Between May 2 and June 5, 2007 Bethesda showcased 5 pieces of concept art by Craig Mullins on the Fallout 3 website during the countdown to the teaser. The cinematic teaser trailer for Fallout 3, consisting of the first part of the intro, was released by Bethesda Softworks on June 5, 2007, after a 30 day countdown on the Fallout 3 website. On August 2, 2007, the game's website was opened.
Reception

Leonard Boyarsky, one of the creators of the original Fallout, when asked about Interplay's sale of the rights to Bethesda, said that he felt as though "our ex-wife had sold our children that she had legal custody of," admitting that he feels very possessive of the series,[7] but also admitted that his concerns have nothing to do with Bethesda.[8] Considerable concern was also raised by some members of the series' fan community, largely concerning major changes in game play style compared to the original games and Fallout 3's similarity to Oblivion. The reaction from the press, however, was largely positive, with many considering the shift to first person view and real time combat an update, and with most considering the similarities to Oblivion to be a good thing.

In a review from 1UP.com, Fallout 3 was praised for its open-ended gameplay and flexible character-leveling system. Its memorable setting prompted a favorable comparison to the 2007 game, BioShock. While the V.A.T.S. system was called "fun," enemy encounters were said to suffer from a lack of precision in real-time combat and little variety in enemy types. The review concluded that despite the game's shortcomings, Fallout 3 is a "hugely ambitious game that doesn't come around very often," and one would "be a fool not to play it and enjoy the hell out of it."[9]

Sales for Fallout 3 have thus far been very high, and figures suggest that the game has outsold all previous Fallout games (including all other spin-offs) in its first week.[10]

Fallout 3 won several awards following its showcasing at E3 2007. IGN gave it the Game of E3 2007 award, and GameSpot gave it the Best Role-Playing Game of E3 2007 award.[11][12] Following the game's demonstration at E3 2008, IGN also gave it Best Overall RPG, Best Overall Console Game, and Overall Game of the Show for E3 2008.[13] Game Critics Awards gave the game Best Role-Playing Game and Best of Show for E3 2008.[14]
Controversies and censorship

On July 4, 2008, Fallout 3 was refused classification by the OFLC in Australia, thus making the game illegal for sale in the country. In order for the game to be reclassified, the offending content in the Australian version of the game would have to be removed by Bethesda Softworks and the game resubmitted to the OFLC.[15] According the OFLC board report, the game was refused classification due to the "realistic visual representations of drugs and their delivery method (bringing) the 'science-fiction' drugs in line with 'real-world' drugs." Despite this, Australia's Fallout 3 was expected to be released on October 30, on par with the European version, and was delivered on time with the drug-name changes.[16]

On September 9, 2008 Bethesda vice president of PR and marketing, Peter Hines, has described the idea of a censored Australian version of Fallout 3 as a misconception. All versions of Fallout 3 no longer include real world drug references,[17] then morphine was renamed to Med-X.

Game content was edited in the German release to include less violence. (No gore).[18]

Bethesda Softworks changed the side quest "The Power of the Atom" in the Japanese version of Fallout 3 to relieve concerns about depictions of atomic detonation in inhabited areas. In non-Japanese versions, players are given the option of either defusing, ignoring, or detonating the dormant atomic bomb in the town of Megaton. In the Japanese version, the character Mister Burke has been taken out of this side quest, making it impossible to detonate the bomb.

Also in the Japanese release, the "Fat Man" nuclear catapult weapon was renamed "Nuka Launcher," as the original name was a reference to the bomb used on Nagasaki, Japan.

Microsoft India decided not to release the game in that country, citing "cultural sensitivities". It has been speculated that this is either because the cattle in the game are called brahmin, which is the name of the highest Hindu caste, or possibly due to the fact that the player can kill and eat the cattle, which, as it is a venerated animal, is against the principles of most Hindu sects.[19]
Leak

On October 9, 2008, an Xbox 360 review copy of Fallout 3 was leaked on torrents all around the world. Bethesda Softworks reacted by closing streaming videos and YouTube videos of the leaked copy. However a large amount of information was leaked, including most of the main quest line.
Production
Developers
Fallout 3 devs

Fallout 3 development team
Main article: Fallout 3 developers

The project is headed by executive producer Todd Howard. Other producers include Ashley Cheng, Gavin Carter and Jeff Gardiner. The lead designer is Emil Pagliarulo who previously worked on Thief games as well as the Dark Brotherhood quests in Oblivion. Lead level designer is Joel Burgess. Other leads are lead artist Istvan Pely and lead programmer Steve Meister. PR and marketing for the game is coordinated by Pete Hines.

See: Fallout 3 developers for a full list of known developers.
Music
Main article: Fallout 3 soundtrack

The soundtrack of Fallout 3 is comprised of two main elements: the ambient soundtrack composed by Inon Zur, who also created the soundtrack of Fallout Tactics, and songs and other musical works which are played by in-game radio stations.
Products
Collector's Edition
Fallout 3 Collector's Edition

The products included in the Fallout 3 Collector's Edition.

The collector's edition of Fallout 3 features: A Vault Boy bobblehead, The Art of Fallout 3 (which features never before seen exclusive concept art for the game), and "The Making of Fallout 3" DVD. The entire package is contained in a Vault-Tec lunchbox container.
Survival Edition
Images (21)

Pip-Boy 3000 digital clock

In addition to the above products, the Survival Edition features a life-size model of the Pip-Boy wrist computer upon whose screen is a fully functional digital clock display.

The Pip-Boy is a similar rendition of the one seen in game. However it is made from a lightweight plastic that surprised many users. Undeterred fans put batteries into their clocks, however many found the buttons to not be functional. Others had the clock function for a time, then turn into a flashing "12:00" before never working again.
Limited Edition
336332ps 500h

Fallout 3 Limited Edition

There was also a limited edition of the game simply called the Fallout 3 Limited Edition that was exclusive to the UK and available only through the retailer game. It comes with the game and a Brotherhood of Steel power armor figurine.
Add-ons
Main article: Fallout 3 add-ons

Bethesda Softworks has released five add-ons for Fallout 3:

Operation: Anchorage
The Pitt
Broken Steel
Point Lookout
Mothership Zeta

Game of the Year Edition

Fallout 3: Game of the Year Edition was released on October 13, 2009 for PC, PS3, and 360; this edition includes all five add-on packs, a Vault Boy poster and a 2 sided map of the Capital Wasteland. Mothership Zeta will not be available in any disc version aside from the Game of the Year edition.
Behind the scenes

The original inspiration for V.A.T.S. was Burnout's crash mode replays.
In the world of Fallout, the bombs fell on October 23. Bethesda tried to coincide the release of Fallout 3 to that.
The downtown D.C. area in Fallout 3 was twice the size at one point. The team decided it was too large and confusing and cut the area space in half. The Wasteland area was half the size, and the team felt it was too small, so the Wasteland size doubled. [20]
The PC version of Fallout 3 is not optimized for Windows 7 and onwards with quad-cores and onwards, but can be run properly if the settings .ini file is modified.

Gallery
Fallout3 Cover Art PC
Box art for the PC version
Fallout 3 PlayStation 3
Box art for the PS3 version
Fallout3XBox360RetailBoxArt
Box art for the Xbox 360 Version
Fallout 3 GOY edition
Box art for the PC Game of Year Edition
Fallout3 1 lg
Example of the game's graphics in Springvale
Wasteland
Capital Wasteland concept art
Memorial m
Jefferson Memorial concept art
Carrier m
Rivet City concept art
FO3 capitol concept2
Capitol Hill concept art
Fallout-3-Game-Of-The-Year-Edition-Front-Cover-17932
Box art for the Xbox 360 Game of the Year edition (European version)
Fallout 3 GOTY box art
Fallout 3 GOTY PS3 Edition

Add an image to this gallery
See also

Fallout 3 announcement
Fallout 3 teaser
Meet the Fallout 3 devs
Fallout 3 FAQ
Fallout 3 Manual

External links
Official links

Official site
Official Fallout 3 Forum

References

↑ E3 2008: Bobble-Head Apocalypse Interview HD
↑ Herve Caen (2004-10-13). "Interplay" (Form 10-Q). Q2 2004. SEC EDGAR. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
↑ "Brother None". Van Buren tech demo. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
↑ Bethesda Softworks to Develop and Publish Fallout 3
↑ Gamespot News
↑ Interview: Bethesda Softworks' Pete Hines
http://www.escapistmagazine.com/issue/77/13
↑ Interview with Duck & Cover
↑ Demian Linn (2008-10-27). Fallout 3 Review. 1UP.com. Retrieved on 2008-10-28.
↑ Fallout 3 outsells all previous Fallout games
↑ IGN Pre-E3 2008: Fallout 3 Confirmed for Show
↑ GameSpot E3 2007 Editor's Choice Awards
↑ IGN's Overall Best of E3 2008 Awards
↑ Game Critics Awards 2008 Winners
↑ Fallout 3 Officially Refused Classification in Australia
↑ OFLC Report: Why Fallout 3 Was Banned In Australia
↑ Edge: Censors Force Fallout 3 Changes
↑ NMA Forum: Fallout 3 to be censored in Germany
↑ 08/11/11 No Fallout 3 for India-UPDATED
↑ GDC 2009: Fallout 3 lead opens game design vault

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Copyright The contents of this page were partially or entirely copied from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, and are therefore licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The original version, its history and authors can be found at the Wikipedia page "Fallout 3".
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Gametitle-FNV
Icon disambig
This page is about the game itself. For an overview of Fallout: New Vegas-related articles, see Portal:Fallout: New Vegas.
Game
Fallout: New Vegas
developer
Obsidian Entertainment
publisher
Bethesda Softworks (US, UK, ROI, JP)
1C/Cenega (PL, RU, CZ)
distributor
Namco Bandai (EU, AU, NZ)
release date
October 19, 2010 (US)
October 21, 2010 (OC)
October 22, 2010 (EU)
November 4, 2010 (Asia)
genre
Role-playing game
engine
Gamebryo
modes
Single player
rating
CERO: Z (JP)
ESRB: M (US)
PEGI: 18 (EU)
platforms
Microsoft Windows XP/Vista/7/8,
Xbox 360, PlayStation 3
media
Blu-ray disc, DVD, Download
system requirements
Minimum requirements:
OS: Windows 7/Vista/XP
CPU: dual core 2.0 GHz
Memory: 2GB RAM
10GB free harddisk space
Video card: NVidia GeForce 6 series, ATI 1300XT series
Availability
PC
Steam
Steam (Ultimate Edition)
Direct2Drive
Xbox
Xbox Live
PlayStation
PSN


Enjoy your stay.


Fallout: New Vegas is a post apocalyptic role-playing video game developed by Obsidian Entertainment and published by Bethesda Softworks. While New Vegas is not a direct sequel, it uses the same engine and style as Fallout 3. It was developed by a few of the employees who worked on previous Fallout games at Black Isle Studios, along with a larger number of new employees. It is set primarily in a post-apocalyptic Nevada, although some areas of California and Arizona are also visited.

The game was released on October 19, 2010 in North America, October 22, 2010 in Europe, and November 4, 2010 in Asia. It is available on the PC, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3.
Contents[show]
Development historyEdit

Fallout: New Vegas was announced on April 20, 2009 at Bethesda's London showcase.[1] The first official information was released in the February 2010 issue of PC Gamer. A cinematic teaser trailer and a gameplay trailer were released. The game spent a total of 18 months in development.[2]
Story and settingEdit
SettingEdit
Main article: Fallout world

The game is set in and around a post-apocalyptic retro-futuristic Las Vegas, following the Great War between the U.S., and China as a conventional and nuclear war that occurred on October 23, 2077, and lasted less than two hours, while causing immense damage and destruction. Before the Great War was the Resource Wars, during which the United Nations disbanded, a plague rendered the United States paranoid, and Canada was annexed. Thanks to Robert House, the city of Las Vegas itself wasn't hit as hard as most of the other districts, with most buildings being left intact as a result. The Hoover Dam supplies free electricity and water to those who control it.
StoryEdit

The story has taken some parts from the Fallout and Fallout 2 stories, and is for the most part unrelated to its predecessor, Fallout 3.

Fallout: New Vegas takes place in 2281, four years after the events of Fallout 3, thirty-nine years after Fallout 2, one-hundred and twenty years after Fallout and six years before the events of Fallout 4 . The New California Republic plays a major part in the game's story, being in a three-way struggle amongst the Caesar's Legion slavers, and the mysterious Mr. House.

The Courier, the player's character, was meant to deliver a package from Primm to New Vegas. However, they are intercepted by the Great Khans led by a mysterious man, who shoots them and takes the package, leaving the Courier for dead in a shallow grave. The Courier is later found by a robot named Victor, and is taken to the settlement of Goodsprings, where Doctor Mitchell saves their life. After the Courier is given some medical tests, the player is pushed back into the open world, and the quest Ain't That a Kick in the Head begins. Fallout: New Vegas has a definitive ending, unlike Fallout 3.[3]

Endings for Fallout: New Vegas are dependent on what actions the player took via quests during the game, with separate endings being shown for each major location, political faction, and recruitable companion.
GameplayEdit

The gameplay system is similar to Fallout 3 gameplay, although some changes have been made, one being changes to the combat system to give the feel of a first-person shooter, including the ability to use weapon iron sights. The game also made a change from the true bullet flight paths in Fallout 3 to simulated bullet flight paths, which means the bullets, when fired, originate from the center of the screen's crosshairs, rather than the tip of the gun's barrel.
Hardcore modeEdit
Main article: Hardcore mode

Hardcore mode is an optional setting which makes the game more realistic, with gameplay elements such as dehydration, and non-instantaneous healing. It can be turned on and off mid-game. Either a trophy or achievement is awarded for completing Fallout: New Vegas on Hardcore mode, however, in order to earn it, the entire game must be played in Hardcore, from the point first prompted until the endgame sequence, without ever turning the setting off. The Casual/Hardcore mode distinction is independent of difficulty settings.
Normal Hardcore
Stimpaks heal instantly. Stimpaks heal over time.
Radaway heals radiation poisoning instantly. Radaway heals radiation poisoning over time.
Doctor's bags heal all limbs fully. Doctor's bags heal limbs partially.
Crippled limbs can be healed with stimpaks, or by sleeping in any bed or mattress. Only a doctor, a doctor's bag, sleeping in certain beds, healing poultice, weapon binding ritual, Auto-Doc, or hydra can heal a crippled limb.
Ammunition is weightless. Ammunition has weight.
Companions cannot die, instead getting knocked unconscious for a short time. Companions can die. However, they still heal without stimpak after battle.
No Dehydration, Starvation, or Sleep deprivation. The Courier must drink, eat, and have proper sleep cycles or will suffer increasingly negative effects, up to immediate death.
Character systemEdit
Main article: Fallout: New Vegas SPECIAL

The SPECIAL system returns, and directly influences speech options and quests. Unlike Fallout 3, traits are available for taking, and perks are gained every two levels instead of every one, a move made by the developers to avoid creating overpowered Couriers.
CombatEdit
Main article: Vault-Tec Assisted Targeting System
Main article: Fallout: New Vegas combat

The Vault-Tec Assisted Targeting System, or V.A.T.S., is an active pause combat system implemented in the game, just like in Fallout 3. While using V.A.T.S., the otherwise real-time combat is paused. V.A.T.S. also allows the gory deaths in the game to be shown in slow motion and great detail. Attacks in V.A.T.S. cost Action Points, and the player can target specific body areas for attacks to inflict specific injuries.

During real time combat, you can now look down the iron sights of weapons, rather than the zoom in Fallout 3. Unlike Fallout 3, melee weapons now have special moves in V.A.T.S., such as "Fore!" for golf clubs.

New Vegas also brings back the Damage Threshold (DT) mechanic absent from Fallout 3. If an enemy has a high DT, some weapons may be ineffective. This is indicated by a red shield near the enemy's health bar when attacking it, both in and out of V.A.T.S. The damage threshold will be due to high armor or a built-in mechanic to that character, and will require the Courier to either retreat or attack with a more powerful weapon. Players also take much more damage in V.A.T.S. than in Fallout 3 (75%, up from 10%), which makes dying during V.A.T.S. a real possibility. Another new feature is the presence of a dynamic 'Kill Cam' which shows the killing bullet in slow motion, permitting players who prefer to play in real-time to experience the same cinematic feel of V.A.T.S. This camera can also be enabled/disabled at will, and is only shown on killing the last enemy of a group.
Karma and ReputationEdit

Karma is back, incorporated alongside a reputation system similar to Fallout 2.[3] Reputation is a form of tracking relationships within the many factions and towns of Fallout: New Vegas, such as the NCR or Goodsprings. A high reputation with a faction or town may give certain benefits, such as gifts from the people of that town, while a low reputation may lead to hits being taken out against you. Karma in New Vegas has little effect compared to Fallout 3; reputation is the primary factor as to how people will react to you.
Weapon ModdingEdit

A modding feature allows you to modify your gun by adding scopes, extended magazines, silencers, and more. Weapons can have a maximum of three attached mods, and they cannot be removed once placed. Obsidian implemented this feature as a direct response to the popularity of the Weapon Mod Kits mod for Fallout 3.[4]
Unique weaponsEdit

There are unique versions of weapons in Fallout: New Vegas, a feature introduced in Fallout 3. Unique weapons have different textures and adornments. They were not originally intended to be modified and most cannot be, however some are still able to take on modification (such as the weathered 10mm pistol), even so their built-in abilities and higher damage output often make up for their lack of flexibility. Counting all the DLCs, there are a total of 81 unique weapons to be found inside the game, but some require the completion of a quest to find (e.g Pew Pew).
Companion wheelEdit

A new companion wheel has been added to quickly and easily give companions commands such as 'Talk', 'Use Ranged Weapons' and 'Wait Here'. It also makes it easier to restore their health (using stimpaks) and swap equipment. The companions also have their likes and dislikes; giving a sniper companion a shotgun, for example, will result in a nasty remark and decreased effectiveness.
GamblingEdit

The city of New Vegas, as well as other smaller settlements in the game, have a variety of colorful casinos or other forms of gambling to explore. In Fallout: New Vegas, several gambling mini-games have been added, including blackjack, roulette, and slots. Outside the casinos, many people across the Mojave play Caravan, a card game designed by Obsidian specifically for New Vegas. Luck is a considerable factor when it comes to gambling. You get money for winning, and floor managers will congratulate you with food or drink and maybe a VIP stay at the hotel. Winning too much money after that, however, will make the managers come down, give you the customary "tap on the shoulder", and tell you to leave the casino on suspicions of cheating. You will not be able to gamble in that casino anymore but are still able to enter and buy items or food from the casino. This however will not remove your current chips.
DevelopersEdit
Main article: Fallout: New Vegas developers

Fallout: New Vegas was developed by Obsidian Entertainment, a company founded by Feargus Urquhart and Chris Avellone, two of the makers of Fallout 2 (originally at Black Isle Studios). The project is led by J.E. Sawyer, one of the lead designers of Van Buren, the canceled Fallout 3 project by Black Isle Studios. John R. Gonzalez is the lead creative designer, while Obsidian founder Chris Avellone, who worked on Fallout 2 and Van Buren is a senior designer. Joe Sanabria is the lead artist.
ProductsEdit
Fnv collector edition-generic
Collector's EditionEdit

The Collector's Edition of Fallout: New Vegas includes Fallout: New Vegas; "Lucky 7" poker chips, replicas from the ones found in the game; a deck of Fallout: New Vegas themed playing cards; a replica of the "Lucky 38" poker chip (The platinum chip) from the game; “All Roads”, a graphic novel about the history of Fallout: New Vegas written by Chris Avellone; and a "The Making of Fallout: New Vegas" DVD. The entire package comes in a collectible Fallout: New Vegas box. The Collector's Edition was also available for pre-order.
Add-onsEdit
Main article: Fallout: New Vegas add-ons

A total of four add-ons, Dead Money, Honest Hearts, Old World Blues, and Lonesome Road have been released. The pre-order bonuses are now released as another add-on, Courier's Stash, as well as another add-on called Gun Runners' Arsenal which was released on September 27, 2011.

Fallout: New Vegas had four different pre-order bonuses: the Classic Pack, Caravan Pack, Tribal Pack, and Mercenary Pack. Each one had a unique suit of armor and a unique weapon not found in-game, along with a few other items that are available within the game.
Ultimate EditionEdit

The Fallout: New Vegas Ultimate Edition was released on February 7th, 2012 in North America and February 10th in Europe. The package contents are the base game along with all add-ons, including Gun Runner's Arsenal and Courier's Stash.
Controversies and censorshipEdit

In the German version, there is no gore. German players that want the full Fallout experience can - as with Fallout 3 - buy the Austrian version which basically features the uncut PEGI version with German speech and text. However, the German Ultimate Edition is completely uncensored.
Just like in Fallout 3, the Fat Man weapon was once again renamed to the "Nuka Launcher" in the Japanese version of Fallout: New Vegas. The Little Boy mod, however, was not.
Fallout: New Vegas was officially banned in the United Arab Emirates, but the ban was repealed later as it did not contain enough violence to meet the criteria of a ban after a test run was made. The ban lasted for about a day after the game's release and the game was soon stocked in stores fully uncensored (with gore) alongside the collector's edition. The ultimate edition was released without any issues as the original game was already in stock and the ultimate edition was simply the same game with all DLC included.

GalleryEdit
FNV box art PC (US)
Box art for the PC version
FNV box art PS3 (US)
Box art for the PS3 version
FNV box art X360 (US)
Box art for the Xbox 360 version
137565b
Back Cover Art
Fnv collector edition-generic
Collector's Edition
FNV dev team
The development team for Fallout: New Vegas
FNV concept art People
Concept art
FNV concept art Vegas Skyline
New Vegas concept art
FNV concept art Hoover Dam
Hoover Dam concept art
FNV concept art Junkyard
Wasteland concept art
FNV-Ultimate-Edition-Announce
Ultimate Edition box art

Add an image to this gallery
VideosEdit
Fallout New Vegas Intro (HD)04:51

Fallout New Vegas Intro (HD)
See alsoEdit

Fallout: New Vegas news
Fallout: New Vegas FAQ
Fallout: New Vegas Manual

External linksEdit
Official linksEdit

Official site
Fallout: New Vegas Forum
Fallout: New Vegas on Wikipedia

ReferencesEdit

↑ VG247 - Fallout: New Vegas announced in London
↑ Josh Sawyer's Formspring
↑ 3.0 3.1 PC Gamer Edwards, Tim (February, 2010), March issue of PC Gamer: pp. 40-41.
↑ Gamespots Interview with Chris Avellone at E3 2010

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Gametitle-FNV
Icon disambig
This page is about the game itself. For an overview of Fallout: New Vegas-related articles, see Portal:Fallout: New Vegas.
Game
Fallout: New Vegas
developer
Obsidian Entertainment
publisher
Bethesda Softworks (US, UK, ROI, JP)
1C/Cenega (PL, RU, CZ)
distributor
Namco Bandai (EU, AU, NZ)
release date
October 19, 2010 (US)
October 21, 2010 (OC)
October 22, 2010 (EU)
November 4, 2010 (Asia)
genre
Role-playing game
engine
Gamebryo
modes
Single player
rating
CERO: Z (JP)
ESRB: M (US)
PEGI: 18 (EU)
platforms
Microsoft Windows XP/Vista/7/8,
Xbox 360, PlayStation 3
media
Blu-ray disc, DVD, Download
system requirements
Minimum requirements:
OS: Windows 7/Vista/XP
CPU: dual core 2.0 GHz
Memory: 2GB RAM
10GB free harddisk space
Video card: NVidia GeForce 6 series, ATI 1300XT series
Availability
PC
Steam
Steam (Ultimate Edition)
Direct2Drive
Xbox
Xbox Live
PlayStation
PSN


Enjoy your stay.


Fallout: New Vegas is a post apocalyptic role-playing video game developed by Obsidian Entertainment and published by Bethesda Softworks. While New Vegas is not a direct sequel, it uses the same engine and style as Fallout 3. It was developed by a few of the employees who worked on previous Fallout games at Black Isle Studios, along with a larger number of new employees. It is set primarily in a post-apocalyptic Nevada, although some areas of California and Arizona are also visited.

The game was released on October 19, 2010 in North America, October 22, 2010 in Europe, and November 4, 2010 in Asia. It is available on the PC, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3.
Contents[show]
Development historyEdit

Fallout: New Vegas was announced on April 20, 2009 at Bethesda's London showcase.[1] The first official information was released in the February 2010 issue of PC Gamer. A cinematic teaser trailer and a gameplay trailer were released. The game spent a total of 18 months in development.[2]
Story and settingEdit
SettingEdit
Main article: Fallout world

The game is set in and around a post-apocalyptic retro-futuristic Las Vegas, following the Great War between the U.S., and China as a conventional and nuclear war that occurred on October 23, 2077, and lasted less than two hours, while causing immense damage and destruction. Before the Great War was the Resource Wars, during which the United Nations disbanded, a plague rendered the United States paranoid, and Canada was annexed. Thanks to Robert House, the city of Las Vegas itself wasn't hit as hard as most of the other districts, with most buildings being left intact as a result. The Hoover Dam supplies free electricity and water to those who control it.
StoryEdit

The story has taken some parts from the Fallout and Fallout 2 stories, and is for the most part unrelated to its predecessor, Fallout 3.

Fallout: New Vegas takes place in 2281, four years after the events of Fallout 3, thirty-nine years after Fallout 2, one-hundred and twenty years after Fallout and six years before the events of Fallout 4 . The New California Republic plays a major part in the game's story, being in a three-way struggle amongst the Caesar's Legion slavers, and the mysterious Mr. House.

The Courier, the player's character, was meant to deliver a package from Primm to New Vegas. However, they are intercepted by the Great Khans led by a mysterious man, who shoots them and takes the package, leaving the Courier for dead in a shallow grave. The Courier is later found by a robot named Victor, and is taken to the settlement of Goodsprings, where Doctor Mitchell saves their life. After the Courier is given some medical tests, the player is pushed back into the open world, and the quest Ain't That a Kick in the Head begins. Fallout: New Vegas has a definitive ending, unlike Fallout 3.[3]

Endings for Fallout: New Vegas are dependent on what actions the player took via quests during the game, with separate endings being shown for each major location, political faction, and recruitable companion.
GameplayEdit

The gameplay system is similar to Fallout 3 gameplay, although some changes have been made, one being changes to the combat system to give the feel of a first-person shooter, including the ability to use weapon iron sights. The game also made a change from the true bullet flight paths in Fallout 3 to simulated bullet flight paths, which means the bullets, when fired, originate from the center of the screen's crosshairs, rather than the tip of the gun's barrel.
Hardcore modeEdit
Main article: Hardcore mode

Hardcore mode is an optional setting which makes the game more realistic, with gameplay elements such as dehydration, and non-instantaneous healing. It can be turned on and off mid-game. Either a trophy or achievement is awarded for completing Fallout: New Vegas on Hardcore mode, however, in order to earn it, the entire game must be played in Hardcore, from the point first prompted until the endgame sequence, without ever turning the setting off. The Casual/Hardcore mode distinction is independent of difficulty settings.
Normal Hardcore
Stimpaks heal instantly. Stimpaks heal over time.
Radaway heals radiation poisoning instantly. Radaway heals radiation poisoning over time.
Doctor's bags heal all limbs fully. Doctor's bags heal limbs partially.
Crippled limbs can be healed with stimpaks, or by sleeping in any bed or mattress. Only a doctor, a doctor's bag, sleeping in certain beds, healing poultice, weapon binding ritual, Auto-Doc, or hydra can heal a crippled limb.
Ammunition is weightless. Ammunition has weight.
Companions cannot die, instead getting knocked unconscious for a short time. Companions can die. However, they still heal without stimpak after battle.
No Dehydration, Starvation, or Sleep deprivation. The Courier must drink, eat, and have proper sleep cycles or will suffer increasingly negative effects, up to immediate death.
Character systemEdit
Main article: Fallout: New Vegas SPECIAL

The SPECIAL system returns, and directly influences speech options and quests. Unlike Fallout 3, traits are available for taking, and perks are gained every two levels instead of every one, a move made by the developers to avoid creating overpowered Couriers.
CombatEdit
Main article: Vault-Tec Assisted Targeting System
Main article: Fallout: New Vegas combat

The Vault-Tec Assisted Targeting System, or V.A.T.S., is an active pause combat system implemented in the game, just like in Fallout 3. While using V.A.T.S., the otherwise real-time combat is paused. V.A.T.S. also allows the gory deaths in the game to be shown in slow motion and great detail. Attacks in V.A.T.S. cost Action Points, and the player can target specific body areas for attacks to inflict specific injuries.

During real time combat, you can now look down the iron sights of weapons, rather than the zoom in Fallout 3. Unlike Fallout 3, melee weapons now have special moves in V.A.T.S., such as "Fore!" for golf clubs.

New Vegas also brings back the Damage Threshold (DT) mechanic absent from Fallout 3. If an enemy has a high DT, some weapons may be ineffective. This is indicated by a red shield near the enemy's health bar when attacking it, both in and out of V.A.T.S. The damage threshold will be due to high armor or a built-in mechanic to that character, and will require the Courier to either retreat or attack with a more powerful weapon. Players also take much more damage in V.A.T.S. than in Fallout 3 (75%, up from 10%), which makes dying during V.A.T.S. a real possibility. Another new feature is the presence of a dynamic 'Kill Cam' which shows the killing bullet in slow motion, permitting players who prefer to play in real-time to experience the same cinematic feel of V.A.T.S. This camera can also be enabled/disabled at will, and is only shown on killing the last enemy of a group.
Karma and ReputationEdit

Karma is back, incorporated alongside a reputation system similar to Fallout 2.[3] Reputation is a form of tracking relationships within the many factions and towns of Fallout: New Vegas, such as the NCR or Goodsprings. A high reputation with a faction or town may give certain benefits, such as gifts from the people of that town, while a low reputation may lead to hits being taken out against you. Karma in New Vegas has little effect compared to Fallout 3; reputation is the primary factor as to how people will react to you.
Weapon ModdingEdit

A modding feature allows you to modify your gun by adding scopes, extended magazines, silencers, and more. Weapons can have a maximum of three attached mods, and they cannot be removed once placed. Obsidian implemented this feature as a direct response to the popularity of the Weapon Mod Kits mod for Fallout 3.[4]
Unique weaponsEdit

There are unique versions of weapons in Fallout: New Vegas, a feature introduced in Fallout 3. Unique weapons have different textures and adornments. They were not originally intended to be modified and most cannot be, however some are still able to take on modification (such as the weathered 10mm pistol), even so their built-in abilities and higher damage output often make up for their lack of flexibility. Counting all the DLCs, there are a total of 81 unique weapons to be found inside the game, but some require the completion of a quest to find (e.g Pew Pew).
Companion wheelEdit

A new companion wheel has been added to quickly and easily give companions commands such as 'Talk', 'Use Ranged Weapons' and 'Wait Here'. It also makes it easier to restore their health (using stimpaks) and swap equipment. The companions also have their likes and dislikes; giving a sniper companion a shotgun, for example, will result in a nasty remark and decreased effectiveness.
GamblingEdit

The city of New Vegas, as well as other smaller settlements in the game, have a variety of colorful casinos or other forms of gambling to explore. In Fallout: New Vegas, several gambling mini-games have been added, including blackjack, roulette, and slots. Outside the casinos, many people across the Mojave play Caravan, a card game designed by Obsidian specifically for New Vegas. Luck is a considerable factor when it comes to gambling. You get money for winning, and floor managers will congratulate you with food or drink and maybe a VIP stay at the hotel. Winning too much money after that, however, will make the managers come down, give you the customary "tap on the shoulder", and tell you to leave the casino on suspicions of cheating. You will not be able to gamble in that casino anymore but are still able to enter and buy items or food from the casino. This however will not remove your current chips.
DevelopersEdit
Main article: Fallout: New Vegas developers

Fallout: New Vegas was developed by Obsidian Entertainment, a company founded by Feargus Urquhart and Chris Avellone, two of the makers of Fallout 2 (originally at Black Isle Studios). The project is led by J.E. Sawyer, one of the lead designers of Van Buren, the canceled Fallout 3 project by Black Isle Studios. John R. Gonzalez is the lead creative designer, while Obsidian founder Chris Avellone, who worked on Fallout 2 and Van Buren is a senior designer. Joe Sanabria is the lead artist.
ProductsEdit
Fnv collector edition-generic
Collector's EditionEdit

The Collector's Edition of Fallout: New Vegas includes Fallout: New Vegas; "Lucky 7" poker chips, replicas from the ones found in the game; a deck of Fallout: New Vegas themed playing cards; a replica of the "Lucky 38" poker chip (The platinum chip) from the game; “All Roads”, a graphic novel about the history of Fallout: New Vegas written by Chris Avellone; and a "The Making of Fallout: New Vegas" DVD. The entire package comes in a collectible Fallout: New Vegas box. The Collector's Edition was also available for pre-order.
Add-onsEdit
Main article: Fallout: New Vegas add-ons

A total of four add-ons, Dead Money, Honest Hearts, Old World Blues, and Lonesome Road have been released. The pre-order bonuses are now released as another add-on, Courier's Stash, as well as another add-on called Gun Runners' Arsenal which was released on September 27, 2011.

Fallout: New Vegas had four different pre-order bonuses: the Classic Pack, Caravan Pack, Tribal Pack, and Mercenary Pack. Each one had a unique suit of armor and a unique weapon not found in-game, along with a few other items that are available within the game.
Ultimate EditionEdit

The Fallout: New Vegas Ultimate Edition was released on February 7th, 2012 in North America and February 10th in Europe. The package contents are the base game along with all add-ons, including Gun Runner's Arsenal and Courier's Stash.
Controversies and censorshipEdit

In the German version, there is no gore. German players that want the full Fallout experience can - as with Fallout 3 - buy the Austrian version which basically features the uncut PEGI version with German speech and text. However, the German Ultimate Edition is completely uncensored.
Just like in Fallout 3, the Fat Man weapon was once again renamed to the "Nuka Launcher" in the Japanese version of Fallout: New Vegas. The Little Boy mod, however, was not.
Fallout: New Vegas was officially banned in the United Arab Emirates, but the ban was repealed later as it did not contain enough violence to meet the criteria of a ban after a test run was made. The ban lasted for about a day after the game's release and the game was soon stocked in stores fully uncensored (with gore) alongside the collector's edition. The ultimate edition was released without any issues as the original game was already in stock and the ultimate edition was simply the same game with all DLC included.

GalleryEdit
FNV box art PC (US)
Box art for the PC version
FNV box art PS3 (US)
Box art for the PS3 version
FNV box art X360 (US)
Box art for the Xbox 360 version
137565b
Back Cover Art
Fnv collector edition-generic
Collector's Edition
FNV dev team
The development team for Fallout: New Vegas
FNV concept art People
Concept art
FNV concept art Vegas Skyline
New Vegas concept art
FNV concept art Hoover Dam
Hoover Dam concept art
FNV concept art Junkyard
Wasteland concept art
FNV-Ultimate-Edition-Announce
Ultimate Edition box art

Add an image to this gallery
VideosEdit
Fallout New Vegas Intro (HD)04:51

Fallout New Vegas Intro (HD)
See alsoEdit

Fallout: New Vegas news
Fallout: New Vegas FAQ
Fallout: New Vegas Manual

External linksEdit
Official linksEdit

Official site
Fallout: New Vegas Forum
Fallout: New Vegas on Wikipedia

ReferencesEdit

↑ VG247 - Fallout: New Vegas announced in London
↑ Josh Sawyer's Formspring
↑ 3.0 3.1 PC Gamer Edwards, Tim (February, 2010), March issue of PC Gamer: pp. 40-41.
↑ Gamespots Interview with Chris Avellone at E3 2010

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Gametitle-FO3Gametitle-FB
Mentioned-only faction
United Nations
Flag of the United Nations
People
founded by
United States
United Kingdom
Soviet Union
China
leader(s)
Sakugama Okiri
notable members
Most pre-War countries
Locations
headquarters
New York City, United States
Gameplay
appearances
Mentioned-only
mentions
Fallout 3
Fallout Bible

The United Nations was an organization that disbanded due to the start of the Resource Wars.
BackgroundEdit

In the Fallout universe in May 2052, the United Nations began to collapse, due to the start of the Resource Wars following the European Commonwealth's military intervention in the Middle East. The oil-rich states of the Middle East had raised crude oil prices to near confiscatory levels in light of the growing global petroleum shortage. Facing an economic disaster because of European nations' heavy reliance on imported Middle Eastern oil, the European Commonwealth had invaded the Middle East to force its states to lower oil prices or to seize their remaining reserves of petroleum.

The United Nations actively tried to restore the peace with nothing to show for their efforts. As natural resource pressures grew and the United Nations' impotence to maintain a stable international order became clear, many member nations withdrew from the organization, prepared to use military force to defend what was theirs or seize what was somebody else's. The United Nations General Assembly finally disbanded the organization on July 26, 2052 after the majority of its member-states had withdrawn from it. Its last Secretary-General was a Japanese diplomat, Sakugama Okiri, who spoke at the press conference detailing the disbanding of the UN. Finally, its former headquarters in New York was sold to the major toy retailer Bumbalo's to be transformed into a superstore.
NotesEdit

For more information on the organization's real world counterpart, see United Nations on Wikipedia.
GalleryEdit
FO3 loading capitalpost2
The Capital Post of July 27, 2052

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Gametitle-FO3Gametitle-FB
Mentioned-only faction
United Nations
Flag of the United Nations
People
founded by
United States
United Kingdom
Soviet Union
China
leader(s)
Sakugama Okiri
notable members
Most pre-War countries
Locations
headquarters
New York City, United States
Gameplay
appearances
Mentioned-only
mentions
Fallout 3
Fallout Bible

The United Nations was an organization that disbanded due to the start of the Resource Wars.
BackgroundEdit

In the Fallout universe in May 2052, the United Nations began to collapse, due to the start of the Resource Wars following the European Commonwealth's military intervention in the Middle East. The oil-rich states of the Middle East had raised crude oil prices to near confiscatory levels in light of the growing global petroleum shortage. Facing an economic disaster because of European nations' heavy reliance on imported Middle Eastern oil, the European Commonwealth had invaded the Middle East to force its states to lower oil prices or to seize their remaining reserves of petroleum.

The United Nations actively tried to restore the peace with nothing to show for their efforts. As natural resource pressures grew and the United Nations' impotence to maintain a stable international order became clear, many member nations withdrew from the organization, prepared to use military force to defend what was theirs or seize what was somebody else's. The United Nations General Assembly finally disbanded the organization on July 26, 2052 after the majority of its member-states had withdrawn from it. Its last Secretary-General was a Japanese diplomat, Sakugama Okiri, who spoke at the press conference detailing the disbanding of the UN. Finally, its former headquarters in New York was sold to the major toy retailer Bumbalo's to be transformed into a superstore.
NotesEdit

For more information on the organization's real world counterpart, see United Nations on Wikipedia.
GalleryEdit
FO3 loading capitalpost2
The Capital Post of July 27, 2052

Add an image to this gallery
Categories:

Fallout 3 mentioned-only factionsFallout Bible factionsPre-War factions

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Languages:

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Add-ons
This page lists all add-ons in Fallout 4.

The content is not described in full detail on this page. For details, please see the respective articles.
For add-ons in other Fallout games, please see "Add-on".
For an overview of Fallout 4 content, please refer to "Portal:Fallout 4".

Contents[show]
F4 SeasonPass pack PEGI en

On September 9, 2015, Bethesda announced Fallout 4 DLC will be coming to the Xbox One, PS4, and PC in 2016 and have a season pass available for $29.99 that will include all future DLC.[1] On February 16, 2016, Bethesda announced the first three add-ons. They also announced that on March 1, 2016, there were plans to release additional add-ons beyond the three already announced, and that the price of the season pass would increase to $49.99 to account for these.
Fallout 4 add-ons listEdit
AutomatronEdit
Fallout 4 Automatron add-on packaging
Main article: Automatron

Automatron is the first add-on for Fallout 4, which was released on March 22, 2016.

"The mysterious Mechanist has unleashed a horde of evil robots into the Commonwealth, including the devious Robobrain. Hunt them down and harvest their parts to build and mod your own custom robot companions. Choose from hundreds of mods; mixing limbs, armor, abilities, and weapons like the all-new lightning chain gun. Even customize their paint schemes and choose their voices!"
Wasteland WorkshopEdit
Fallout 4 Wasteland Workshop add-on packaging
Main article: Wasteland Workshop

Wasteland Workshop is the second add-on for Fallout 4, which was released on April 12, 2016.

"With the Wasteland Workshop, design and set cages to capture live creatures – from raiders to Deathclaws! Tame them or have them face off in battle, even against your fellow settlers. The Wasteland Workshop also includes a suite of new design options for your settlements like nixie tube lighting, letter kits, taxidermy and more!"
Far HarborEdit
Fallout 4 Far Harbor add-on packaging
Mbox upcoming

Upcoming content
The content of this article refers to upcoming content. When the content is released, the accuracy of the article needs to be checked and it may be necessary to complete the article's infobox and/or upload a required image.
Main article: Far Harbor (add-on)

Far Harbor is the third add-on for Fallout 4 and the first story add-on, set to be released on May 19th, 2016.

"A new case from Valentine’s Detective Agency leads you on a search for a young woman and a secret colony of synths. Travel off the coast of Maine to the mysterious island of Far Harbor, where higher levels of radiation have created a more feral world. Navigate through the growing conflict between the synths, the Children of Atom, and the local townspeople. Will you work towards bringing peace to Far Harbor, and at what cost? Far Harbor features the largest landmass for an add-on that we’ve ever created, filled with new faction quests, settlements, lethal creatures and dungeons. Become more powerful with new, higher-level armor and weapons. The choices are all yours."
ReferencesEdit

↑ Bethesda.net on Launch and Beyond

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Gametitle-FO4 FH
Icon disambig
For the location, see Far Harbor (location).
Fallout 4 add-on
Far Harbor
General
developer
Bethesda Game Studios
publisher
Bethesda Softworks
price
$24.99 (without Season Pass)
Release data
PC
May 19th, 2016
Xbox One
May 19th, 2016
Playstation 4
May 19th, 2016


A new case from Valentine's Detective Agency leads you on a search for a young woman and a secret colony of synths. Travel off the coast of Maine to the mysterious island of Far Harbor, where higher levels of radiation have created a more feral world. Navigate through the growing conflict between the synths, the Children of Atom, and the local townspeople. Will you work towards bringing peace to Far Harbor, and at what cost? Far Harbor features the largest landmass for an add-on that we've ever created, filled with new faction quests, settlements, lethal creatures and dungeons. Become more powerful with new, higher-level armor and weapons. The choices are all yours.
”— Official description

Far Harbor is the third add-on for Fallout 4, set to be released on May 19th, 2016.
Contents[show]
Release and availabilityEdit

On May 4th, 2016 it was announced via Twitter that Far Harbor would be available on all platforms on May 19th, 2016.
PlotEdit

The add-on will be set on the island of Far Harbor, off the coast of Maine. There, the Sole Survivor will search for a young woman and a colony of synths.
CharactersEdit
Mbox stub

Section needed
This section is needed but has not been written yet. You can help Nukapedia by writing it.
FactionsEdit

Church of the Children of Atom

LocationsEdit
This section is transcluded from Fallout 4 locations. To change it, please edit the transcluded page.

Far Harbor

EnemiesEdit

The trailer released on May 4th, 2016 shows several new mutant and insect creatures, some of which seem to be water-based, although their names are unknown, one of which appears to be an angler fish and the Fog Crawler resembles a preying mantis. It is also implied that the Church of the Children of Atom may serve as possible antagonists in the add-on. The trailer also showed off new synths that look heavily modified.
CreaturesEdit

Fog crawler[1]

Mbox stub

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ItemsEdit
Armor and clothingEdit

Marine armor

Mbox stub

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QuestsEdit
This section is transcluded from Fallout 4 quests. To change it, please edit the transcluded page.
Icon
Name
Location(s)
Given by
Reward
Form ID
Editor ID
FH Cleansing the Land trophy
Cleansing the Land xx000000 DLC03
FH Far from Home trophy
Far from Home xx000000 DLC03
FH Where You Belong trophy
Where You Belong xx000000 DLC03
FH The Way Life Should Be trophy
The Way Life Should Be xx000000 DLC03
FH Close to Home trophy
Close to Home xx000000 DLC03
Achievements/TrophiesEdit
This section is transcluded from Fallout 4 achievements and trophies. To change it, please edit the transcluded page.
Name
Requirement
Achievement points
Trophy type
Image
New England Vacationer Discover 20 Far Harbor locations 10 Bronze FH New England Vacationer trophy
Hooked Defeat 30 Far Harbor sea creatures 10 Bronze FH Hooked trophy
Push Back the Fog Unlock 3 Far Harbor Workshop locations 10 Bronze FH Push Back the Fog trophy
Just Add Saltwater Cook one of the new Far Harbor recipes 10 Bronze FH Just Add Saltwater trophy
The Islander's Almanac Collect all issues of "The Islander's Almanac" magazine 10 Bronze FH The Islanders Almanac trophy
Cleansing the Land Complete the quest "Cleansing the Land" 20 FH Cleansing the Land trophy
Far from Home Complete the quest "Far from Home" 20 FH Far from Home trophy
Where You Belong Complete the quest "Where You Belong" 20 FH Where You Belong trophy
The Way Life Should Be Complete the quest "The Way Life Should Be" 20 FH The Way Life Should Be trophy
Close to Home Complete the quest "Close to Home" 50 FH Close to Home trophy
GalleryEdit
Fallout 4 Far Harbor pre-release 1
Pre-release screenshot
Fallout4 FarHarbor Arrival
Arrival
Fallout4 FarHarbor Coast
Coastline
Fallout4 FarHarbor FogCrawler
The fog crawler
Fallout4 FarHarbor MarineArmor
Sole Survivor in Marine armor
Fallout4 FarHarbor PlayerAndNick
Sole Survivor and Nick Valentine
Fallout4 FarHarbor WelcomeSign
Welcome sign

Add an image to this gallery
Official trailerEdit
Fallout 4 - Far Harbor Official Trailer01:19

Fallout 4 - Far Harbor Official Trailer
ReferencesEdit

↑ Offical name pre-release screenshot

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Gametitle-FO4 AUT
Mbox incomplete

Infobox incomplete
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Automatron helmet
Assaultron helmet
Assaultron helmet2
DT
+9 Damage Resistance
+5 Energy Resistance
weight
3
value
20
base id
xx00864a

The assaultron helmet is a helmet in the Fallout 4 add-on Automatron.
CharacteristicsEdit

The assaultron helmet appears to be the hardened head armor of an assaultron's head modified to be used as protective headgear. The face plates of the helmet extend toward the back of the head, revealing the wearer's face, while their weapon is holstered. When drawing a weapon, the mechanisms on the side of the helmet cause the plates to contract around the user's face, bearing a more kindred appearance to the assaultron.
LocationsEdit

Can be found on Rust Devils at Fort Hagen satellite array.

NotesEdit

Even though the only the headgear slot is shown to be taken, headgear, glasses and bandanas cannot be worn with this helmet.
Though it can be modified with the same kinds of modifications as the Metal Helmet, none of the modifications show any change to the color whatsoever, including the shadowed modification.


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X-ray
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the nature, production, and uses of the radiation. For the method of imaging, see Radiography. For imaging in a medical context, see Radiology. For other meanings, see X-ray (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with X-wave or X-band.
X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, with wavelengths shorter than visible light. Different applications use different parts of the X-ray spectrum.

X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is referred to with terms meaning Röntgen radiation, after Wilhelm Röntgen,[1] who is usually credited as its discoverer, and who had named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation.[2] Spelling of X-ray(s) in the English language includes the variants x-ray(s), xray(s), and X ray(s).[3]

X-rays with photon energies above 5–10 keV (below 0.2–0.1 nm wavelength) are called hard X-rays, while those with lower energy are called soft X-rays.[4] Due to their penetrating ability, hard X-rays are widely used to image the inside of objects, e.g., in medical radiography and airport security. As a result, the term X-ray is metonymically used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself. Since the wavelengths of hard X-rays are similar to the size of atoms they are also useful for determining crystal structures by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, soft X-rays are easily absorbed in air; the attenuation length of 600 eV (~2 nm) X-rays in water is less than 1 micrometer.[5]

There is no consensus for a definition distinguishing between X-rays and gamma rays. One common practice is to distinguish between the two types of radiation based on their source: X-rays are emitted by electrons, while gamma rays are emitted by the atomic nucleus.[6][7][8][9] This definition has several problems: other processes also can generate these high-energy photons, or sometimes the method of generation is not known. One common alternative is to distinguish X- and gamma radiation on the basis of wavelength (or, equivalently, frequency or photon energy), with radiation shorter than some arbitrary wavelength, such as 10−11 m (0.1 Å), defined as gamma radiation.[10] This criterion assigns a photon to an unambiguous category, but is only possible if wavelength is known. (Some measurement techniques do not distinguish between detected wavelengths.) However, these two definitions often coincide since the electromagnetic radiation emitted by X-ray tubes generally has a longer wavelength and lower photon energy than the radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei.[6] Occasionally, one term or the other is used in specific contexts due to historical precedent, based on measurement (detection) technique, or based on their intended use rather than their wavelength or source. Thus, gamma-rays generated for medical and industrial uses, for example radiotherapy, in the ranges of 6–20 MeV, can in this context also be referred to as X-rays.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Properties
2 Interaction with matter
2.1 Photoelectric absorption
2.2 Compton scattering
2.3 Rayleigh scattering
3 Production
3.1 Production by electrons
3.2 Production by fast positive ions
4 Detectors
5 Medical uses
5.1 Radiographs
5.2 Computed tomography
5.3 Fluoroscopy
5.4 Radiotherapy
6 Adverse effects
7 Other uses
8 History
8.1 Discovery
8.2 Early research
8.3 Wilhelm Röntgen
8.4 Advances in radiology
8.5 Dangers
8.6 20th century and beyond
9 Visibility
10 Units of measure and exposure
11 See also
12 References
13 External links

Properties
Ionizing radiation hazard symbol

X-ray photons carry enough energy to ionize atoms and disrupt molecular bonds. This makes it a type of ionizing radiation, and therefore harmful to living tissue. A very high radiation dose over a short amount of time causes radiation sickness, while lower doses can give an increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. In medical imaging this increased cancer risk is generally greatly outweighed by the benefits of the examination. The ionizing capability of X-rays can be utilized in cancer treatment to kill malignant cells using radiation therapy. It is also used for material characterization using X-ray spectroscopy.
Attenuation length of X-rays in water showing the oxygen absorption edge at 540 eV, the energy−3 dependence of photoabsorption, as well as a leveling off at higher photon energies due to Compton scattering. The attenuation length is about four orders of magnitude longer for hard X-rays (right half) compared to soft X-rays (left half).

Hard X-rays can traverse relatively thick objects without being much absorbed or scattered. For this reason, X-rays are widely used to image the inside of visually opaque objects. The most often seen applications are in medical radiography and airport security scanners, but similar techniques are also important in industry (e.g. industrial radiography and industrial CT scanning) and research (e.g. small animal CT). The penetration depth varies with several orders of magnitude over the X-ray spectrum. This allows the photon energy to be adjusted for the application so as to give sufficient transmission through the object and at the same time good contrast in the image.

X-rays have much shorter wavelength than visible light, which makes it possible to probe structures much smaller than what can be seen using a normal microscope. This can be used in X-ray microscopy to acquire high resolution images, but also in X-ray crystallography to determine the positions of atoms in crystals.
Interaction with matter

X-rays interact with matter in three main ways, through photoabsorption, Compton scattering, and Rayleigh scattering. The strength of these interactions depend on the energy of the X-rays and the elemental composition of the material, but not much on chemical properties since the X-ray photon energy is much higher than chemical binding energies. Photoabsorption or photoelectric absorption is the dominant interaction mechanism in the soft X-ray regime and for the lower hard X-ray energies. At higher energies, Compton scattering dominates.
Photoelectric absorption

The probability of a photoelectric absorption per unit mass is approximately proportional to Z3/E3, where Z is the atomic number and E is the energy of the incident photon.[11] This rule is not valid close to inner shell electron binding energies where there are abrupt changes in interaction probability, so called absorption edges. However, the general trend of high absorption coefficients and thus short penetration depths for low photon energies and high atomic numbers is very strong. For soft tissue photoabsorption dominates up to about 26 keV photon energy where Compton scattering takes over. For higher atomic number substances this limit is higher. The high amount of calcium (Z=20) in bones together with their high density is what makes them show up so clearly on medical radiographs.

A photoabsorbed photon transfers all its energy to the electron with which it interacts, thus ionizing the atom to which the electron was bound and producing a photoelectron that is likely to ionize more atoms in its path. An outer electron will fill the vacant electron position and produce either a characteristic photon or an Auger electron. These effects can be used for elemental detection through X-ray spectroscopy or Auger electron spectroscopy.
Compton scattering

Compton scattering is the predominant interaction between X-rays and soft tissue in medical imaging.[12] Compton scattering is an inelastic scattering of the X-ray photon by an outer shell electron. Part of the energy of the photon is transferred to the scattering electron, thereby ionizing the atom and increasing the wavelength of the X-ray. The scattered photon can go in any direction, but a direction similar to the original direction is a bit more likely, especially for high-energy X-rays. The probability for different scattering angles are described by the Klein–Nishina formula. The transferred energy can be directly obtained from the scattering angle from the conservation of energy and momentum.
Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh scattering is the dominant elastic scattering mechanism in the X-ray regime.[13] Inelastic forward scattering gives rise to the refractive index, which for X-rays is only slightly below 1.[14]
Production

Whenever charged particles (electrons or ions) of sufficient energy hit a material, x-rays are produced.
Production by electrons
Characteristic X-ray emission lines for some common anode materials.[15][16] Anode
material Atomic
number Photon energy [keV] Wavelength [nm]
Kα1 Kβ1 Kα1 Kβ1
W 74 59.3 67.2 0.0209 0.0184
Mo 42 17.5 19.6 0.0709 0.0632
Cu 29 8.05 8.91 0.157 0.139
Ag 47 22.2 24.9 0.0559 0.0497
Ga 31 9.25 10.26 0.134 0.121
In 49 24.2 27.3 0.0512 0.455
Spectrum of the X-rays emitted by an X-ray tube with a rhodium target, operated at 60 kV. The smooth, continuous curve is due to bremsstrahlung, and the spikes are characteristic K lines for rhodium atoms.

X-rays can be generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. The high velocity electrons collide with a metal target, the anode, creating the X-rays.[17] In medical X-ray tubes the target is usually tungsten or a more crack-resistant alloy of rhenium (5%) and tungsten (95%), but sometimes molybdenum for more specialized applications, such as when softer X-rays are needed as in mammography. In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.

The maximum energy of the produced X-ray photon is limited by the energy of the incident electron, which is equal to the voltage on the tube times the electron charge, so an 80 kV tube cannot create X-rays with an energy greater than 80 keV. When the electrons hit the target, X-rays are created by two different atomic processes:

Characteristic X-ray emission: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-rays at a few discrete frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. Usually these are transitions from upper shells into K shell (called K lines), into L shell (called L lines) and so on.
Bremsstrahlung: This is radiation given off by the electrons as they are scattered by the strong electric field near the high-Z (proton number) nuclei. These X-rays have a continuous spectrum. The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube.

So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. The voltages used in diagnostic X-ray tubes range from roughly 20 kV to 150 kV and thus the highest energies of the X-ray photons range from roughly 20 keV to 150 keV.[18]

Both of these X-ray production processes are inefficient, with a production efficiency of only about one percent, and thus most of the electric power consumed by the tube is released as waste heat. When producing a usable flux of X-rays, the X-ray tube must be designed to dissipate the excess heat.

Short nanosecond bursts of X-rays peaking at 15-keV in energy may be reliably produced by peeling pressure-sensitive adhesive tape from its backing in a moderate vacuum. This is likely to be the result of recombination of electrical charges produced by triboelectric charging. The intensity of X-ray triboluminescence is sufficient for it to be used as a source for X-ray imaging.[19] Using sources considerably more advanced than sticky tape, at least one startup firm is exploiting tribocharging in the development of highly portable, ultra-miniaturized X-ray devices.[20]

A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. Its unique features are X-ray outputs many orders of magnitude greater than those of X-ray tubes, wide X-ray spectra, excellent collimation, and linear polarization.[21]
Production by fast positive ions

X-rays can also be produced by fast protons or other positive ions. The proton-induced X-ray emission or particle-induced X-ray emission is widely used as an analytical procedure. For high energies, the production cross section is proportional to Z12Z2−4, where Z1 refers to the atomic number of the ion, Z2 to that of the target atom.[22] An overview of these cross sections is given in the same reference.
Detectors
Main article: X-ray detector

X-ray detectors vary in shape and function depending on their purpose. Imaging detectors such as those used for radiography were originally based on photographic plates and later photographic film, but are now mostly replaced by various digital detector types such as image plates and flat panel detectors. For radiation protection direct exposure hazard is often evaluated using ionization chambers, while dosimeters are used to measure the radiation dose a person has been exposed to. X-ray spectra can be measured either by energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive spectrometers.
Medical uses
X-ray.
Main article: Medical imaging
A chest radiograph of a female, demonstrating a hiatus hernia

Since Röntgen's discovery that X-rays can identify bone structures, X-rays have been used for medical imaging. The first medical use was less than a month after his paper on the subject.[23] Up until 2010, 5 billion medical imaging studies have been conducted worldwide.[24] Radiation exposure from medical imaging in 2006 made up about 50% of total ionizing radiation exposure in the United States.[25]
Radiographs
Main article: Radiography
An arm radiograph, demonstrating broken ulna and radius with implanted internal fixation.

A radiograph is an X-ray image obtained by placing a part of the patient in front of an X-ray detector and then illuminating it with a short X-ray pulse. Bones contain much calcium, which due to its relatively high atomic number absorbs x-rays efficiently. This reduces the amount of X-rays reaching the detector in the shadow of the bones, making them clearly visible on the radiograph. The lungs and trapped gas also show up clearly because of lower absorption compared to tissue, while differences between tissue types are harder to see.

Radiographs are useful in the detection of pathology of the skeletal system as well as for detecting some disease processes in soft tissue. Some notable examples are the very common chest X-ray, which can be used to identify lung diseases such as pneumonia, lung cancer, or pulmonary edema, and the abdominal x-ray, which can detect bowel (or intestinal) obstruction, free air (from visceral perforations) and free fluid (in ascites). X-rays may also be used to detect pathology such as gallstones (which are rarely radiopaque) or kidney stones which are often (but not always) visible. Traditional plain X-rays are less useful in the imaging of soft tissues such as the brain or muscle.

Dental radiography is commonly used in the diagnoses of common oral problems, such as cavities.

In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the radiation dose without contributing to the image. Hence, a thin metal sheet, often of aluminium, called an X-ray filter, is usually placed over the window of the X-ray tube, absorbing the low energy part in the spectrum. This is called hardening the beam since it shifts the center of the spectrum towards higher energy (or harder) x-rays.

To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A second image is then taken of the same region after an iodinated contrast agent has been injected into the blood vessels within this area. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine whether there is any damage or blockage of the vessel.
Computed tomography
Head CT scan (transverse plane) slice -– a modern application of medical radiography

Computed tomography (CT scanning) is a medical imaging modality where tomographic images or slices of specific areas of the body are obtained from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken in different directions.[26] These cross-sectional images can be combined into a three-dimensional image of the inside of the body and used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines.
Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique commonly used by physicians or radiation therapists to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of a fluoroscope. In its simplest form, a fluoroscope consists of an X-ray source and a fluorescent screen, between which a patient is placed. However, modern fluoroscopes couple the screen to an X-ray image intensifier and CCD video camera allowing the images to be recorded and played on a monitor. This method may use a contrast material. Examples include cardiac catheterization (to examine for coronary artery blockages) and barium swallow (to examine for esophageal disorders).
Radiotherapy

The use of X-rays as a treatment is known as radiation therapy and is largely used for the management (including palliation) of cancer; it requires higher radiation doses than those received for imaging alone. X-rays beams are used for treating skin cancers using lower energy x-ray beams while higher energy beams are used for treating cancers within the body such as brain, lung, prostate, and breast.[27][28]
Adverse effects
Abdominal radiograph of a pregnant woman, a procedure that should be performed only after proper assessment of benefit versus risk

Diagnostic X-rays (primarily from CT scans due to the large dose used) increase the risk of developmental problems and cancer in those exposed.[29][30][31] X-rays are classified as a carcinogen by both the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer and the U.S. government.[24][32] It is estimated that 0.4% of current cancers in the United States are due to computed tomography (CT scans) performed in the past and that this may increase to as high as 1.5-2% with 2007 rates of CT usage.[33]

Experimental and epidemiological data currently do not support the proposition that there is a threshold dose of radiation below which there is no increased risk of cancer.[34] However, this is under increasing doubt.[35] It is estimated that the additional radiation will increase a person's cumulative risk of getting cancer by age 75 by 0.6–1.8%.[36] The amount of absorbed radiation depends upon the type of X-ray test and the body part involved.[37] CT and fluoroscopy entail higher doses of radiation than do plain X-rays.

To place the increased risk in perspective, a plain chest X-ray will expose a person to the same amount from background radiation that people are exposed to (depending upon location) every day over 10 days, while exposure from a dental X-ray is approximately equivalent to 1 day of environmental background radiation.[38] Each such X-ray would add less than 1 per 1,000,000 to the lifetime cancer risk. An abdominal or chest CT would be the equivalent to 2–3 years of background radiation to the whole body, or 4–5 years to the abdomen or chest, increasing the lifetime cancer risk between 1 per 1,000 to 1 per 10,000.[38] This is compared to the roughly 40% chance of a US citizen developing cancer during their lifetime.[39] For instance, the effective dose to the torso from a CT scan of the chest is about 5 mSv, and the absorbed dose is about 14 mGy.[40] A head CT scan (1.5mSv, 64mGy)[41] that is performed once with and once without contrast agent, would be equivalent to 40 years of background radiation to the head. Accurate estimation of effective doses due to CT is difficult with the estimation uncertainty range of about ±19% to ±32% for adult head scans depending upon the method used.[42]

The risk of radiation is greater to unborn babies, so in pregnant patients, the benefits of the investigation (X-ray) should be balanced with the potential hazards to the unborn fetus.[43][44] In the US, there are an estimated 62 million CT scans performed annually, including more than 4 million on children.[37] Avoiding unnecessary X-rays (especially CT scans) reduces radiation dose and any associated cancer risk.[45]

Medical X-rays are a significant source of man-made radiation exposure. In 1987, they accounted for 58% of exposure from man-made sources in the United States. Since man-made sources accounted for only 18% of the total radiation exposure, most of which came from natural sources (82%), medical X-rays only accounted for 10% of total American radiation exposure; medical procedures as a whole (including nuclear medicine) accounted for 14% of total radiation exposure. By 2006, however, medical procedures in the United States were contributing much more ionizing radiation than was the case in the early 1980s. In 2006, medical exposure constituted nearly half of the total radiation exposure of the U.S. population from all sources. The increase is traceable to the growth in the use of medical imaging procedures, in particular computed tomography (CT), and to the growth in the use of nuclear medicine.[25][46]

Dosage due to dental X-rays varies significantly depending on the procedure and the technology (film or digital). Depending on the procedure and the technology, a single dental X-ray of a human results in an exposure of 0.5 to 4 mrem. A full mouth series may therefore result in an exposure of up to 6 (digital) to 18 (film) mrem, for a yearly average of up to 40 mrem.[47][48][49][50][51][52][53]
Other uses

Other notable uses of X-rays include
Each dot, called a reflection, in this diffraction pattern forms from the constructive interference of scattered X-rays passing through a crystal. The data can be used to determine the crystalline structure.

X-ray crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of X-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analysed to reveal the nature of that lattice. A related technique, fiber diffraction, was used by Rosalind Franklin to discover the double helical structure of DNA.[54]
X-ray astronomy, which is an observational branch of astronomy, which deals with the study of X-ray emission from celestial objects.
X-ray microscopic analysis, which uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to produce images of very small objects.
X-ray fluorescence, a technique in which X-rays are generated within a specimen and detected. The outgoing energy of the X-ray can be used to identify the composition of the sample.
Industrial radiography uses X-rays for inspection of industrial parts, particularly welds.
Industrial CT (computed tomography) is a process which uses X-ray equipment to produce three-dimensional representations of components both externally and internally. This is accomplished through computer processing of projection images of the scanned object in many directions.
Paintings are often X-rayed to reveal underdrawings and pentimenti, alterations in the course of painting or by later restorers. Many pigments such as lead white show well in radiographs.
X-ray spectromicroscopy has been used to analyse the reactions of pigments in paintings. For example, in analysing colour degradation in the paintings of van Gogh[55]
Airport security luggage scanners use X-rays for inspecting the interior of luggage for security threats before loading on aircraft.
Border control truck scanners use X-rays for inspecting the interior of trucks.

X-ray fine art photography of needlefish by Peter Dazeley

X-ray art and fine art photography, artistic use of X-rays, for example the works by Stane Jagodič
X-ray hair removal, a method popular in the 1920s but now banned by the FDA.[56]
Shoe-fitting fluoroscopes were popularized in the 1920s, banned in the US in the 1960s, banned in the UK in the 1970s, and even later in continental Europe.
Roentgen stereophotogrammetry is used to track movement of bones based on the implantation of markers
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is a chemical analysis technique relying on the photoelectric effect, usually employed in surface science.

History
Discovery
Wilhelm Röntgen

German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen is usually credited as the discoverer of X-rays in 1895, because he was the first to systematically study them, though he is not the first to have observed their effects. He is also the one who gave them the name "X-rays" (signifying an unknown quantity[57]) though many others referred to these as "Röntgen rays" (and the associated X-ray radiograms as, "Röntgenograms") for several decades after their discovery and even to this day in some languages, including Röntgen's native German.
Hand mit Ringen (Hand with Rings): print of Wilhelm Röntgen's first "medical" X-ray, of his wife's hand, taken on 22 December 1895 and presented to Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik Institut, University of Freiburg, on 1 January 1896[58][59]

X-rays were found emanating from Crookes tubes, experimental discharge tubes invented around 1875, by scientists investigating the cathode rays, that is energetic electron beams, that were first created in the tubes. Crookes tubes created free electrons by ionization of the residual air in the tube by a high DC voltage of anywhere between a few kilovolts and 100 kV. This voltage accelerated the electrons coming from the cathode to a high enough velocity that they created X-rays when they struck the anode or the glass wall of the tube. Many of the early Crookes tubes undoubtedly radiated X-rays, because early researchers noticed effects that were attributable to them, as detailed below. Wilhelm Röntgen was the first to systematically study them, in 1895.[60]

The discovery of X-rays stimulated a veritable sensation. Röntgen's biographer Otto Glasser estimated that, in 1896 alone, as many as 49 essays and 1044 articles about the new rays were published.[61] This was probably a conservative estimate, if one considers that nearly every paper around the world extensively reported about the new discovery, with a magazine such as Science dedicating as many as 23 articles to it in that year alone.[62] Sensationalist reactions to the new discovery included publications linking the new kind of rays to occult and paranormal theories, such as telepathy.[63][64]
Early research

Both William Crookes (in the 1880s)[65] and German physicist Johann Hittorf[citation needed], a co-inventor and early researcher of the Crookes tube, found that photographic plates placed near the tube became unaccountably fogged or flawed by shadows. Neither found the cause nor investigated this effect.

In 1877 Ukrainian-born Ivan Pulyui, a lecturer in experimental physics at the University of Vienna, constructed various designs of vacuum discharge tube to investigate their properties.[66] He continued his investigations when appointed professor at the Prague Polytechnic and in 1886 he found that sealed photographic plates became dark when exposed to the emanations from the tubes. Early in 1896, just a few weeks after Röntgen published his first X-ray photograph, Pulyui published high-quality X-ray images in journals in Paris and London.[66] Although Pulyui had studied with Röntgen at the University of Strasbourg in the years 1873–75, his biographer Gaida (1997) asserts that his subsequent research was conducted independently.[66]
Taking an X-ray image with early Crookes tube apparatus, late 1800s. The Crookes tube is visible in center. The standing man is viewing his hand with a fluoroscope screen. No precautions against radiation exposure are taken; its hazards were not known at the time.

X-rays were generated and detected by Fernando Sanford (1854–1948), the foundation Professor of Physics at Stanford University, in 1891. From 1886 to 1888 he had studied in the Hermann Helmholtz laboratory in Berlin, where he became familiar with the cathode rays generated in vacuum tubes when a voltage was applied across separate electrodes, as previously studied by Heinrich Hertz and Philipp Lenard. His letter of January 6, 1893 (describing his discovery as "electric photography") to The Physical Review was duly published and an article entitled Without Lens or Light, Photographs Taken With Plate and Object in Darkness appeared in the San Francisco Examiner.[67]

Starting in 1888, Philipp Lenard, a student of Heinrich Hertz, conducted experiments to see whether cathode rays could pass out of the Crookes tube into the air. He built a Crookes tube (later called a "Lenard tube") with a "window" in the end made of thin aluminum, facing the cathode so the cathode rays would strike it. He found that something came through, that would expose photographic plates and cause fluorescence. He measured the penetrating power of these rays through various materials. It has been suggested that at least some of these "Lenard rays" were actually X-rays.[68]

Hermann von Helmholtz formulated mathematical equations for X-rays. He postulated a dispersion theory before Röntgen made his discovery and announcement. It was formed on the basis of the electromagnetic theory of light.[69] However, he did not work with actual X-rays.

In 1894 Nikola Tesla noticed damaged film in his lab that seemed to be associated with Crookes tube experiments and began investigating this radiant energy of "invisible" kinds.[70][71] After Röntgen identified the x-ray Tesla began making X-ray images of his own using high voltages and tubes of his own design,[72] as well as Crookes tubes.
Wilhelm Röntgen
1896 plaque published in "Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpetrière", a medical journal. In the left a hand deformity, in the right same hand seen using radiography. The authors designated the technique as Röntgen photography.

On November 8, 1895, German physics professor Wilhelm Röntgen stumbled on X-rays while experimenting with Lenard and Crookes tubes and began studying them. He wrote an initial report "On a new kind of ray: A preliminary communication" and on December 28, 1895 submitted it to the Würzburg's Physical-Medical Society journal.[73] This was the first paper written on X-rays. Röntgen referred to the radiation as "X", to indicate that it was an unknown type of radiation. The name stuck, although (over Röntgen's great objections) many of his colleagues suggested calling them Röntgen rays. They are still referred to as such in many languages, including German, Danish, Polish, Swedish, Finnish, Estonian, Russian, Japanese, Dutch, and Norwegian. Röntgen received the first Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery.[74]

There are conflicting accounts of his discovery because Röntgen had his lab notes burned after his death, but this is a likely reconstruction by his biographers:[75][76] Röntgen was investigating cathode rays from a Crookes tube (which he had wrapped in black cardboard so that the visible light from the tube would not interfere), using a fluorescent screen painted with barium platinocyanide. He noticed a faint green glow from the screen, about 1 meter away. Röntgen realized some invisible rays coming from the tube were passing through the cardboard to make the screen glow. He found they could also pass through books and papers on his desk. Röntgen threw himself into investigating these unknown rays systematically. Two months after his initial discovery, he published his paper.

Röntgen discovered its medical use when he made a picture of his wife's hand on a photographic plate formed due to X-rays. The photograph of his wife's hand was the first photograph of a human body part using X-rays. When she saw the picture, she said "I have seen my death."[77]
Advances in radiology
A simplified diagram of a water-cooled X-ray tube

In 1895, Thomas Edison investigated materials' ability to fluoresce when exposed to X-rays, and found that calcium tungstate was the most effective substance. Around March 1896, the fluoroscope he developed became the standard for medical X-ray examinations. Nevertheless, Edison dropped X-ray research around 1903, even before the death of Clarence Madison Dally, one of his glassblowers. Dally had a habit of testing X-ray tubes on his hands, and acquired a cancer in them so tenacious that both arms were amputated in a futile attempt to save his life.

In 1901, U.S. President William McKinley was shot twice in an assassination attempt. While one bullet only grazed his sternum, another had lodged somewhere deep inside his abdomen and could not be found. "A worried McKinley aide sent word to inventor Thomas Edison to rush an X-ray machine to Buffalo to find the stray bullet. It arrived but wasn't used." While the shooting itself had not been lethal, "gangrene had developed along the path of the bullet, and McKinley died of septic shock due to bacterial infection" six days later.[78]

The first use of X-rays under clinical conditions was by John Hall-Edwards in Birmingham, England on 11 January 1896, when he radiographed a needle stuck in the hand of an associate.[79] On 14 February 1896 Hall-Edwards was also the first to use X-rays in a surgical operation.[80] In early 1896, several weeks after Röntgen's discovery, Ivan Romanovich Tarkhanov irradiated frogs and insects with X-rays, concluding that the rays "not only photograph, but also affect the living function".[81]

The first medical X-ray made in the United States was obtained using a discharge tube of Pulyui's design. In January 1896, on reading of Röntgen's discovery, Frank Austin of Dartmouth College tested all of the discharge tubes in the physics laboratory and found that only the Pulyui tube produced X-rays. This was a result of Pulyui's inclusion of an oblique "target" of mica, used for holding samples of fluorescent material, within the tube. On 3 February 1896 Gilman Frost, professor of medicine at the college, and his brother Edwin Frost, professor of physics, exposed the wrist of Eddie McCarthy, whom Gilman had treated some weeks earlier for a fracture, to the X-rays and collected the resulting image of the broken bone on gelatin photographic plates obtained from Howard Langill, a local photographer also interested in Röntgen's work.[23]
Dangers

With the widespread experimentation with x‑rays after their discovery in 1895 by scientists, physicians, and inventors came many stories of burns, hair loss, and worse in technical journals of the time. In February 1896, Professor John Daniel and Dr. William Lofland Dudley of Vanderbilt University reported hair loss after Dr. Dudley was X-rayed. A child who had been shot in the head was brought to the Vanderbilt laboratory in 1896. Before trying to find the bullet an experiment was attempted, for which Dudley "with his characteristic devotion to science"[82][83][84] volunteered. Daniel reported that 21 days after taking a picture of Dudley's skull (with an exposure time of one hour), he noticed a bald spot 2 inches (5.1 cm) in diameter on the part of his head nearest the X-ray tube: "A plate holder with the plates towards the side of the skull was fastened and a coin placed between the skull and the head. The tube was fastened at the other side at a distance of one-half inch from the hair."[85]

In August 1896 Dr. HD. Hawks, a graduate of Columbia College, suffered severe hand and chest burns from an x-ray demonstration. It was reported in Electrical Review and led to many other reports of problems associated with x-rays being sent in to the publication.[86] Many experimenters including Elihu Thomson at Edison's lab, William J. Morton, and Nikola Tesla also reported burns. Elihu Thomson deliberately exposed a finger to an x-ray tube over a period of time and suffered pain, swelling, and blistering.[87] Other effects were sometime blamed for the damage including ultraviolet rays and (according to Tesla) ozone.[88] Many physicians claimed there were no effects from x-ray exposure at all.[87] On 3 August 1905 at San Francisco, California, Elizabeth Fleischman, American woman X-ray pioneer, died from complications as a result of her work with X-rays.[89][90][91]
20th century and beyond
A male technician taking an X-ray of a female patient in 1940. This image was used to argue that radiation exposure during the X-ray procedure would be negligible.

The many applications of X-rays immediately generated enormous interest. Workshops began making specialized versions of Crookes tubes for generating X-rays and these first-generation cold cathode or Crookes X-ray tubes were used until about 1920.

Crookes tubes were unreliable. They had to contain a small quantity of gas (invariably air) as a current will not flow in such a tube if they are fully evacuated. However, as time passed, the X-rays caused the glass to absorb the gas, causing the tube to generate "harder" X-rays until it soon stopped operating. Larger and more frequently used tubes were provided with devices for restoring the air, known as "softeners". These often took the form of a small side tube which contained a small piece of mica, a mineral that traps relatively large quantities of air within its structure. A small electrical heater heated the mica, causing it to release a small amount of air, thus restoring the tube's efficiency. However, the mica had a limited life, and the restoration process was difficult to control.

In 1904, John Ambrose Fleming invented the thermionic diode, the first kind of vacuum tube. This used a hot cathode that caused an electric current to flow in a vacuum. This idea was quickly applied to X-ray tubes, and hence heated-cathode X-ray tubes, called "Coolidge tubes", completely replaced the troublesome cold cathode tubes by about 1920.

In about 1906, the physicist Charles Barkla discovered that X-rays could be scattered by gases, and that each element had a characteristic X-ray. He won the 1917 Nobel Prize in Physics for this discovery.

In 1912, Max von Laue, Paul Knipping, and Walter Friedrich first observed the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. This discovery, along with the early work of Paul Peter Ewald, William Henry Bragg, and William Lawrence Bragg, gave birth to the field of X-ray crystallography.

The Coolidge X-ray tube was invented during the following year by William D. Coolidge. It made possible the continuous emissions of X-rays. X-ray tubes similar to this are still in use in 2012.
Chandra's image of the galaxy cluster Abell 2125 reveals a complex of several massive multimillion-degree-Celsius gas clouds in the process of merging.

The use of X-rays for medical purposes (which developed into the field of radiation therapy) was pioneered by Major John Hall-Edwards in Birmingham, England. Then in 1908, he had to have his left arm amputated because of the spread of X-ray dermatitis on his arm.[92]

The X-ray microscope was developed during the 1950s.

The Chandra X-ray Observatory, launched on July 23, 1999, has been allowing the exploration of the very violent processes in the universe which produce X-rays. Unlike visible light, which gives a relatively stable view of the universe, the X-ray universe is unstable. It features stars being torn apart by black holes, galactic collisions, and novae, and neutron stars that build up layers of plasma that then explode into space.

An X-ray laser device was proposed as part of the Reagan Administration's Strategic Defense Initiative in the 1980s, but the only test of the device (a sort of laser "blaster" or death ray, powered by a thermonuclear explosion) gave inconclusive results. For technical and political reasons, the overall project (including the X-ray laser) was de-funded (though was later revived by the second Bush Administration as National Missile Defense using different technologies).
Golden Doodle dog hip xray posterior view
Phase-contrast x-ray image of spider

Phase-contrast X-ray imaging refers to a variety of techniques that use phase information of a coherent x-ray beam to image soft tissues. It has become an important method for visualizing cellular and histological structures in a wide range of biological and medical studies. There are several technologies being used for x-ray phase-contrast imaging, all utilizing different principles to convert phase variations in the x-rays emerging from an object into intensity variations.[93][94] These include propagation-based phase contrast,[95] talbot interferometry,[94] refraction-enhanced imaging,[96] and x-ray interferometry.[97] These methods provide higher contrast compared to normal absorption-contrast x-ray imaging, making it possible to see smaller details. A disadvantage is that these methods require more sophisticated equipment, such as synchrotron or microfocus x-ray sources, X-ray optics, and high resolution x-ray detectors.
Visibility

While generally considered invisible to the human eye, in special circumstances X-rays can be visible. Brandes, in an experiment a short time after Röntgen's landmark 1895 paper, reported after dark adaptation and placing his eye close to an X-ray tube, seeing a faint "blue-gray" glow which seemed to originate within the eye itself.[98] Upon hearing this, Röntgen reviewed his record books and found he too had seen the effect. When placing an X-ray tube on the opposite side of a wooden door Röntgen had noted the same blue glow, seeming to emanate from the eye itself, but thought his observations to be spurious because he only saw the effect when he used one type of tube. Later he realized that the tube which had created the effect was the only one powerful enough to make the glow plainly visible and the experiment was thereafter readily repeatable. The knowledge that X-rays are actually faintly visible to the dark-adapted naked eye has largely been forgotten today; this is probably due to the desire not to repeat what would now be seen as a recklessly dangerous and potentially harmful experiment with ionizing radiation. It is not known what exact mechanism in the eye produces the visibility: it could be due to conventional detection (excitation of rhodopsin molecules in the retina), direct excitation of retinal nerve cells, or secondary detection via, for instance, X-ray induction of phosphorescence in the eyeball with conventional retinal detection of the secondarily produced visible light.

Though X-rays are otherwise invisible, it is possible to see the ionization of the air molecules if the intensity of the X-ray beam is high enough. The beamline from the wiggler at the ID11 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is one example of such high intensity.[99]
Units of measure and exposure

The measure of X-rays ionizing ability is called the exposure:

The coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) is the SI unit of ionizing radiation exposure, and it is the amount of radiation required to create one coulomb of charge of each polarity in one kilogram of matter.
The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air. 1 roentgen= 2.58×10−4 C/kg.

However, the effect of ionizing radiation on matter (especially living tissue) is more closely related to the amount of energy deposited into them rather than the charge generated. This measure of energy absorbed is called the absorbed dose:

The gray (Gy), which has units of (joules/kilogram), is the SI unit of absorbed dose, and it is the amount of radiation required to deposit one joule of energy in one kilogram of any kind of matter.
The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. 100 rad= 1 gray.

The equivalent dose is the measure of the biological effect of radiation on human tissue. For X-rays it is equal to the absorbed dose.

The Roentgen equivalent man (rem) is the traditional unit of equivalent dose. For X-rays it is equal to the rad, or, in other words, 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. 100 rem = 1 Sv.
The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, and also of effective dose. For X-rays the "equivalent dose" is numerically equal to a Gray (Gy). 1 Sv= 1 Gy. For the "effective dose" of X-rays, it is usually not equal to the Gray (Gy).

See also
Portal icon Medical portal
Portal icon Physics portal

Abnormal reflection
Backscatter X-ray
Detective quantum efficiency
High-energy X-rays
N ray
Neutron radiation
NuSTAR
Radiographer
Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS)
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)
X-ray absorption spectroscopy
X-ray marker
X-ray nanoprobe
X-ray reflectivity
X-ray vision
X-ray welding
Macintyre's X-Ray Film - 1896 documentary radiography film
The X-Rays - 1897 British short silent comedy film

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HELEN
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Star Wars
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Star wars)
This article is about the film series and media franchise. For the original 1977 film, see Star Wars (film). For other uses, see Star Wars (disambiguation).
Star Wars
Star Wars Logo.svg
The Star Wars logo as seen in all films.
Creator George Lucas
Original work Star Wars (1977)
Print publications
Novels List of novels
Comics List of comics
Films and television
Films

Saga:
Original trilogy

IV – A New Hope (1977)
V – The Empire Strikes Back (1980)
VI – Return of the Jedi (1983)

Prequel trilogy

I – The Phantom Menace (1999)
II – Attack of the Clones (2002)
III – Revenge of the Sith (2005)

Sequel trilogy

VII – The Force Awakens (2015)
VIII (2017)
IX (2019)

Anthology:

Rogue One (2016)
Untitled Han Solo Anthology film (2018)[1]
Untitled Anthology film (2020)[1]

Other:

The Clone Wars (2008)

Television series

The Clone Wars (2008–14)
Rebels (2014–present)

Specials

Spark of Rebellion (2014)
The Siege of Lothal (2015)

Legends

Droids (1985–86)
Ewoks (1985–86)
Clone Wars (2003–2005)

Legends specials

Star Wars Holiday Special (1978)
Caravan of Courage (1984)
The Battle for Endor (1985)

Games
Video games List of video games
Audio
Radio programs Star Wars
Original music Music of Star Wars
Miscellaneous
Toys

Action figures
Die-casts and model toys
Chess and soldiers
Other

Theme parks

Star Tours
Jedi Training: Trials of the Temple
Star Tours–The Adventures Continue
Star Wars Land

Star Wars is an American epic space opera franchise, centered on a film series created by George Lucas. It depicts the adventures of various characters "a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away".

The film series began on May 25, 1977 with the release of the film Star Wars (subtitled Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981[2][3][4]) by 20th Century Fox, which became a worldwide pop culture phenomenon. It was followed by the similarly successful sequels The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983); these three films constitute the original Star Wars trilogy. A prequel trilogy was later released between 1999 and 2005, which received a more mixed reaction from critics and fans in comparison to the original trilogy. All six films were nominated for or won Academy Awards, and were commercial successes, with a combined box office revenue of $4.38 billion,[5] making Star Wars the fourth highest-grossing film series.[6] The series has spawned an extensive media franchise—the Star Wars expanded universe—including books, television series, computer and video games, and comic books, resulting in significant development of the series's fictional universe. Star Wars also holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise." In 2012, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at USD $30.7 billion, including box-office receipts as well as profits from their video games and DVD sales.[7]

In 2012, The Walt Disney Company acquired Lucasfilm for $4.06 billion and announced three new Star Wars films; the first film of that trilogy, Star Wars: The Force Awakens, was released on December 18, 2015.[8] 20th Century Fox retains the physical distribution rights to the first two Star Wars trilogies, owning permanent rights for the original 1977 film and holding the rights to Episodes I–III, V and VI until May 2020.[9][10] Walt Disney Studios owns digital distribution rights to all the Star Wars films, excluding A New Hope.[10][11]

Contents

1 Setting
2 Theatrical films
2.1 Saga films
2.2 Anthology films
2.3 Other films
2.4 Plot overview
2.4.1 Original trilogy
2.4.2 Prequel trilogy
2.4.3 Sequel trilogy
2.5 Themes
2.6 Technical information
2.7 Production history
2.7.1 Saga series
2.7.1.1 Original trilogy
2.7.1.2 Prequel trilogy
2.7.1.3 Sequel trilogy
2.7.2 Anthology series
2.7.2.1 Rogue One
2.7.2.2 Untitled Han Solo Anthology film
2.7.2.3 Untitled Anthology film
2.7.3 3D releases
3 Cast and crew
3.1 Cast
3.2 Crew and other
4 Reception
4.1 Box office performance
4.2 Critical and public response
4.3 Academy Awards
5 In other media
5.1 Other films
5.2 Television series
5.3 Literature
5.4 Games
5.5 Fan works
6 Theme park attractions
7 Legacy
7.1 Organisms named after Star Wars characters
8 See also
9 Notes
10 References
11 Sources
12 Further reading
13 External links

Setting
"Star Wars galaxy" redirects here. For the video game, see Star Wars Galaxies. For the comic series named Star Wars Galaxy, see Star Wars (UK comics).

The events depicted in the Star Wars franchise take place in a fictional galaxy. Many species of alien creatures (often humanoid) are depicted. Robotic droids are also commonplace and are generally built to serve their owners. Space travel is common, and many planets in the galaxy are members of a single galactic government. In the prequel trilogy, this is depicted in the form of the Galactic Republic; at the end of the prequel trilogy and throughout the original trilogy, this government is the Galactic Empire. Preceding and during the sequel trilogy, this government is the New Republic.

One of the prominent elements of Star Wars is "the Force", an omnipresent energy that can be harnessed by those with that ability, known as Force-sensitives. It is described in the first produced film as "an energy field created by all living things [that] surrounds us, penetrates us, [and] binds the galaxy together."[12] The Force allows users to perform various supernatural feats (such as telekinesis, clairvoyance, precognition, and mind control) and can amplify certain physical traits, such as speed and reflexes; these abilities vary between characters and can be improved through training. While the Force can be used for good, known as the light side, it also has a dark side that, when pursued, imbues users with hatred, aggression, and malevolence.

The six films feature the Jedi, who adhere to the light side of the Force to serve as peacekeepers and guardians, and the Sith, who use the dark side of the Force for evil in an attempt to destroy the Jedi Order and the Republic and rule the galaxy for themselves.
Theatrical films

The first film in the series, Star Wars, was released on May 25, 1977. This was followed by two sequels: The Empire Strikes Back, released on May 21, 1980, and Return of the Jedi, released on May 25, 1983. The opening crawl of the sequels disclosed that they were numbered as "Episode V" and "Episode VI" respectively, though the films were generally advertised solely under their subtitles. Though the first film in the series was simply titled Star Wars, with its 1981 re-release it had the subtitle Episode IV: A New Hope added to remain consistent with its sequel, and to establish it as the middle chapter of a continuing saga.[13]

In 1997, to correspond with the 20th anniversary of the original film, Lucas released a "Special Edition" of the Star Wars trilogy to theaters. The re-release featured alterations to the three films, primarily motivated by the improvement of CGI and other special effects technologies, which allowed visuals that were not possible to achieve at the time of the original filmmaking. Lucas continued to make changes to the films for subsequent releases, such as the first ever DVD release of the original trilogy on September 21, 2004, and the first ever Blu-ray release of all six films on September 16, 2011.[14] Reception of the Special Edition was mixed,[15][16][17][18] prompting petitions and fan edits to produce restored copies of the original trilogy.[19][20]

More than two decades after the release of the original film, the series continued with a prequel trilogy; consisting of Episode I: The Phantom Menace, released on May 19, 1999; Episode II: Attack of the Clones, released on May 16, 2002; and Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, released on May 19, 2005.[21] On August 15, 2008, Star Wars: The Clone Wars was released theatrically as a lead-in to the animated TV series of the same name. Star Wars: The Force Awakens was released on December 18, 2015.

On January 26, 2016, Variety reported that Disney executives were meeting with cable outlets Turner, FX Networks, Viacom, NBCUniversal, A&E Networks and AMC Networks to have a discussion on purchasing the free-TV rights to the first six Star Wars movies.[22][23][24][25]
Saga films
Film Release date Director(s) Screenwriter(s) Producer(s) Distributor(s) Status
Original trilogy
Star Wars: Episode IV –
A New Hope May 25, 1977 George Lucas Gary Kurtz 20th Century Fox Released
Star Wars: Episode V –
The Empire Strikes Back May 21, 1980 Irvin Kershner George Lucas, Leigh Brackett & Lawrence Kasdan
Star Wars: Episode VI –
Return of the Jedi May 25, 1983 Richard Marquand George Lucas & Lawrence Kasdan Howard Kazanjian
Prequel trilogy
Star Wars: Episode I –
The Phantom Menace May 19, 1999 George Lucas George Lucas Rick McCallum 20th Century Fox Released
Star Wars: Episode II –
Attack of the Clones May 16, 2002 George Lucas & Jonathan Hales
Star Wars: Episode III –
Revenge of the Sith May 19, 2005 George Lucas
Sequel trilogy
Star Wars: Episode VII –
The Force Awakens December 18, 2015 J. J. Abrams Lawrence Kasdan & J. J. Abrams and Michael Arndt Kathleen Kennedy, J. J. Abrams & Bryan Burk Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures Released
Star Wars: Episode VIII December 15, 2017[26] Rian Johnson Kathleen Kennedy, Ram Bergman, Lawrence Kasdan & Simon Kinberg Filming
Star Wars: Episode IX May 24, 2019 Colin Trevorrow Rian Johnson (story)
Colin Trevorrow & Derek Connolly (screenplay) Kathleen Kennedy & Ram Bergman Pre-production[27]
Anthology films
Film Release date Director(s) Screenwriter(s) Producer(s) Distributor(s) Status
Rogue One:
A Star Wars Story December 16, 2016 Gareth Edwards Gary Whitta & Chris Weitz Kathleen Kennedy & Tony To Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures Post Production
Untitled Han Solo film May 25, 2018 Phil Lord and Christopher Miller Lawrence Kasdan & Jon Kasdan Kathleen Kennedy Pre-production[27]
Untitled Anthology film 2020 TBA TBA In development
Other films
Film Release date Director(s) Screenwriter(s) Producer(s) Distributor(s) Status
Star Wars: The Clone Wars August 15, 2008 Dave Filoni Henry Gilroy, Steven Melching & Scott Murphy George Lucas & Catherine Winder Warner Bros. Released
Plot overview
A street performer in costume as Darth Vader in Amsterdam. Vader is one of the most iconic characters of the Star Wars franchise.[28]
Original trilogy

The original trilogy begins with the Galactic Empire nearing completion of the Death Star space station, which will allow the Empire to crush the Rebel Alliance, an organized resistance formed to combat Emperor Palpatine's tyranny. Palpatine's Sith apprentice Darth Vader captures Princess Leia, a member of the rebellion who has stolen the plans to the Death Star and hidden them in the astromech droid R2-D2. R2, along with his protocol droid counterpart C-3PO, escapes to the desert planet Tatooine. There, the droids are purchased by farm boy Luke Skywalker and his step-uncle and aunt. While Luke is cleaning R2, he accidentally triggers a message put into the droid by Leia, who asks for assistance from the legendary Jedi Knight Obi-Wan Kenobi. Luke later assists the droids in finding the exiled Jedi, who is now passing as an old hermit under the alias Ben Kenobi. When Luke asks about his father, whom he has never met, Obi-Wan tells him that Anakin Skywalker was a great Jedi who was betrayed and murdered by Vader.[29] Obi-Wan and Luke hire the smuggler Han Solo and his Wookiee co-pilot Chewbacca to take them to Alderaan, Leia's home world, which they eventually find has been destroyed by the Death Star. Once on board the space station, Luke and Han rescue Leia while Obi-Wan allows himself to be killed during a lightsaber duel with Vader; his sacrifice allows the group to escape with the plans that help the Rebels destroy the Death Star. Luke himself (guided by the power of the Force) fires the shot that destroys the deadly space station during the Battle of Yavin.[12]

Three years later, Luke travels to find the Jedi Master Yoda, now living in exile on the swamp-infested world of Dagobah, to begin his Jedi training. However, Luke's training is interrupted when Vader lures him into a trap by capturing Han and his friends at Cloud City. During a fierce lightsaber duel, Vader reveals that he is Luke's father and attempts to turn him to the dark side of the Force.[30] Luke escapes and, after rescuing Han from the gangster Jabba the Hutt, returns to Yoda to complete his training; only to find the 900-year-old Jedi Master on his deathbed. Before he dies, Yoda confirms that Vader is Luke's father. Moments later, the Force ghost of Obi-Wan tells Luke that he must confront his father once again before he can become a Jedi, and that Leia is his twin sister.

As the Rebels attack the second Death Star, Luke engages Vader in another lightsaber duel as the Emperor watches; both Sith Lords intend to turn Luke to the dark side and take him as their apprentice. During the duel, Luke succumbs to his anger and brutally overpowers Vader, but controls himself at the last minute; realizing that he is about to suffer his father's fate, he spares Vader's life and proudly declares his allegiance to the Jedi. An enraged Palpatine then attempts to kill Luke with Force lightning, a sight that moves Vader to turn and kill the Emperor, suffering mortal wounds in the process. Redeemed, Anakin Skywalker dies in his son's arms. Luke becomes a full-fledged Jedi, and the Rebels destroy the second Death Star.[31]
Prequel trilogy

The prequel trilogy begins (32 years before the original film) with the corrupt Trade Federation setting up a blockade of battleships around the planet Naboo. The Sith Lord Darth Sidious had secretly planned the blockade to give his alter ego, Senator Palpatine, a pretense to overthrow and replace the Supreme Chancellor of the Galactic Republic. At the Chancellor's request, the Jedi Knight Qui-Gon Jinn and his apprentice, a younger Obi-Wan Kenobi, are sent to Naboo to negotiate with the Federation. However, the two Jedi are forced to instead help the Queen of Naboo, Padmé Amidala, escape from the blockade and plead her planet's crisis before the Republic Senate on Coruscant. When their starship is damaged during the escape, they land on Tatooine for repairs, where Qui-Gon discovers a nine-year-old Anakin Skywalker. Qui-Gon comes to believe that Anakin is the "Chosen One" foretold by Jedi prophecy to bring balance to the Force, and he helps liberate the boy from slavery. The Jedi Council, led by Yoda, reluctantly allows Obi-Wan to train Anakin after Qui-Gon is killed by Palpatine's first apprentice, Darth Maul, during the Battle of Naboo.[32]

The remainder of the prequel trilogy chronicles Anakin's gradual descent to the dark side as he fights in the Clone Wars, which Palpatine secretly engineers to destroy the Jedi Order and lure Anakin into his service.[33] Anakin and Padmé fall in love and secretly wed, and eventually Padmé becomes pregnant. Anakin has a prophetic vision of Padmé dying in childbirth, and Palpatine convinces him that the dark side of the Force holds the power to save her life. Desperate, Anakin submits to Palpatine's Sith teachings and is renamed Darth Vader.

While Palpatine re-organizes the Republic into the tyrannical Empire, Vader participates in the extermination of the Jedi Order, culminating in a lightsaber duel between himself and Obi-Wan on the volcanic planet Mustafar. Obi-Wan defeats his former apprentice and friend, severing his limbs and leaving him to burn to death on the shores of a lava flow. Palpatine arrives shortly afterward and saves Vader by placing him into a mechanical black mask and suit of armor that serves as a permanent life support system. At the same time, Padmé dies while giving birth to twins Luke and Leia. Obi-Wan and Yoda, now the only remaining Jedi alive, agree to separate the twins and keep them hidden from both Vader and the Emperor; until the time comes when Anakin's children can be used to help overthrow the Empire.[34]
Sequel trilogy

Approximately 30 years after the destruction of the second Death Star, Luke Skywalker, the last Jedi, has vanished. The First Order has risen from the fallen Empire and seeks to destroy Luke and the New Republic, while the Resistance, a small force backed by the Republic and led by the former princess of Alderaan, General Leia Organa, opposes them. On the planet Jakku, Resistance pilot Poe Dameron obtains a map that leads to Luke's location. Stormtroopers under the command of Kylo Ren, the son of Han Solo and Leia, capture Poe. His droid BB-8 escapes with the map and encounters a scavenger, Rey. Ren tortures Poe and learns of BB-8. Stormtrooper FN-2187 finds himself unable to kill for the First Order, and he frees Poe. The two escape in a TIE fighter; Poe dubs FN-2187 "Finn". They crash on Jakku, and Poe appears to die in the process. Finn encounters Rey and BB-8, but the First Order locates them, so they escape the planet in a stolen ship: the Millennium Falcon. After leaving Jakku, the Falcon is recaptured by Han Solo and Chewbacca, who have stepped away from the Resistance and resumed their lives as smugglers. The five companions travel to Takodana to meet with Maz Kanata. While there, Rey finds the lightsaber that previously belonged Anakin and Luke Skywalker, and upon touching it, brushes with the Force. Maz's castle is attacked by the First Order. Finn, Han, and Chewbacca are saved by a group of Resistance pilots led by Poe, who survived the crash on Jakku, but Rey is captured by Ren and taken to Starkiller Base. After reuniting with Leia and the Resistance on D'Qar, Han, Finn, and Chewbacca travel to Starkiller Base to free Rey and disable the planet's shields, which will allow Resistance pilots to destroy it. Rey is tortured by Ren, but her Force sensitivity allows her to resist him. She escapes by using a Jedi mind trick on her guard and reunites with Han, Finn, and Chewbacca, but the group encounters Ren. Han confronts his son, calling him by his birth name, Ben Solo, and asking him to come home. Ren momentarily appears to be swayed towards the light side, but then ignites his lightsaber and kills Han. Resistance pilots begin to bombard the base. Finn and Rey escape the base and encounter Ren. Finn takes up Anakin's lightsaber, only to be badly wounded by Ren. Rey Force pulls the lightsaber to her, and fights and wounds Ren, but the two are separated by a rift. Rey, Finn, and Chewbacca escape the imploding planet on the Falcon and return to the Resistance. A wounded Finn stays on D'Qar, while Rey, Chewbacca, and R2-D2 use the map to find Luke Skywalker on the planet Ahch-To, where Rey presents a silent Luke with his old lightsaber.
Themes
See also: Philosophy and religion in Star Wars, The Force (Star Wars), and Star Wars sources and analogues

The stormtroopers from the movies share a name with the Nazi stormtroopers (see also Sturmabteilung). Imperial officers' uniforms also resemble some historical German Army uniforms (see Wehrmacht) and the political and security officers of the Empire resemble the black clad SS down to the imitation silver death's head insignia on their officer's caps. World War II terms were used for names in Star Wars; examples include the planets Kessel (a term that refers to a group of encircled forces), Hoth (Hermann Hoth was a German general who served on the snow laden Eastern Front), and Tatooine (Tataouine - a province south of Tunis in Tunisia, roughly where Lucas filmed for the planet; Libya was a WWII arena of war).[35] Palpatine being Chancellor before becoming Emperor mirrors Adolf Hitler's role as Chancellor before appointing himself Dictator. The Great Jedi Purge alludes to the events of The Holocaust, the Great Purge, the Cultural Revolution, and the Night of the Long Knives. In addition, Lucas himself has drawn parallels between Palpatine and his rise to power to historical dictators such as Julius Caesar, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Adolf Hitler. The final medal awarding scene in A New Hope, however, references Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will.[36] The space battles in A New Hope were based on filmed World War I and World War II dogfights.[37]

Continuing the use of Nazi inspiration for the Empire, J. J. Abrams, the director of Star Wars: The Force Awakens, has said that the First Order, an Imperial offshoot which will possibly serve as the main antagonist of the sequel trilogy, is also inspired by another aspect of the Nazi regime. Abrams spoke of how several Nazis fled to Argentina after the war and he claims that the concept for the First Order came from conversations between the scriptwriters about what would have happened if they had started working together again.[38]

Aside from its well known science fictional technology, Star Wars features elements such as knighthood, chivalry, and princesses that are related to archetypes of the fantasy genre.[39] The Star Wars world, unlike fantasy and science-fiction films that featured sleek and futuristic settings, was portrayed as dirty and grimy. Lucas' vision of a "used future" was further popularized in the science fiction-horror films Alien,[40] which was set on a dirty space freighter; Mad Max 2, which is set in a post-apocalyptic desert; and Blade Runner, which is set in a crumbling, dirty city of the future. Lucas made a conscious effort to parallel scenes and dialogue between films, and especially to parallel the journeys of Luke Skywalker with that of his father Anakin when making the prequels.[32]

Star Wars contains many themes of political science that mainly favor democracy over dictatorship. Political science has been an important element of Star Wars since the franchise first launched in 1977. The plot climax of Star Wars is modeled after the fall of the democratic Roman Republic and the formation of an empire.[41][42][43]
Technical information

All seven films of the Star Wars series were shot in an aspect ratio of 2.39:1. The original and sequel trilogies were shot with anamorphic lenses. Episodes IV, V, and VII were shot in Panavision, while Episode VI was shot in Joe Dunton Camera (JDC) scope. Episode I was shot with Hawk anamorphic lenses on Arriflex cameras, and Episodes II and III were shot with Sony's CineAlta high-definition digital cameras.[44]

Lucas hired Ben Burtt to oversee the sound effects on the original 1977 film. Burtt's accomplishment was such that the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented him with a Special Achievement Award because it had no award at the time for the work he had done.[45] Lucasfilm developed the THX sound reproduction standard for Return of the Jedi.[46] John Williams composed the scores for all seven films. Lucas' design for Star Wars involved a grand musical sound, with leitmotifs for different characters and important concepts. Williams' Star Wars title theme has become one of the most famous and well-known musical compositions in modern music history.[47]

Lucas hired 'the Dean of Special Effects' John Stears, who created R2-D2, Luke Skywalker's Landspeeder, the Jedi Knights' lightsabers, and the Death Star.[48][49] The technical lightsaber choreography for the original trilogy was developed by leading filmmaking sword-master Bob Anderson. Anderson trained actor Mark Hamill (Luke Skywalker) and performed all the sword stunts as Darth Vader during the lightsaber duels in The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, wearing Vader's costume. Anderson's role in the original Star Wars trilogy was highlighted in the film Reclaiming the Blade, where he shares his experiences as the fight choreographer developing the lightsaber techniques for the movies.[50]
Production history
Saga series
Original trilogy
"Original trilogy" redirects here. For the video game, see Lego Star Wars II: The Original Trilogy.
George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars

In 1971, Universal Studios agreed to make American Graffiti and Star Wars in a two-picture contract, although Star Wars was later rejected in its early concept stages. American Graffiti was completed in 1973 and, a few months later, Lucas wrote a short summary called "The Journal of the Whills", which told the tale of the training of apprentice CJ Thorpe as a "Jedi-Bendu" space commando by the legendary Mace Windy.[51] Frustrated that his story was too difficult to understand, Lucas then began writing a 13-page treatment called The Star Wars on April 17, 1973, which had thematic parallels with Akira Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress.[52] By 1974, he had expanded the treatment into a rough draft screenplay, adding elements such as the Sith, the Death Star, and a protagonist named Annikin Starkiller.

For the second draft, Lucas made heavy simplifications, and introduced the young hero on a farm as Luke Starkiller. Annikin became Luke's father, a wise Jedi knight. "The Force" was also introduced as a mystical energy field. The next draft removed the father character and replaced him with a substitute named Ben Kenobi, and in 1976 a fourth draft had been prepared for principal photography. The film was titled Adventures of Luke Starkiller, as taken from the Journal of the Whills, Saga I: The Star Wars. During production, Lucas changed Luke's name to Skywalker and altered the title to simply The Star Wars and finally Star Wars.[53]
John Williams, composer of the musical scores for all seven films of the original and prequel trilogies and Episode 7.

At that point, Lucas was not expecting the film to become part of a series. The fourth draft of the script underwent subtle changes that made it more satisfying as a self-contained film, ending with the destruction of the Galactic Empire itself by way of destroying the Death Star. However, Lucas had previously conceived of the film as the first in a series of adventures. Later, he realized the film would not in fact be the first in the sequence, but a film in the second trilogy in the saga. This is stated explicitly in George Lucas' preface to the 1994 reissue of Splinter of the Mind's Eye:

It wasn't long after I began writing Star Wars that I realized the story was more than a single film could hold. As the saga of the Skywalkers and Jedi Knights unfolded, I began to see it as a tale that could take at least nine films to tell—three trilogies—and I realized, in making my way through the back story and after story, that I was really setting out to write the middle story.

The second draft contained a teaser for a never-made sequel about "The Princess of Ondos", and by the time of the third draft some months later Lucas had negotiated a contract that gave him rights to make two sequels. Not long after, Lucas met with author Alan Dean Foster, and hired him to write these two sequels as novels.[54] The intention was that if Star Wars was successful, Lucas could adapt the novels into screenplays.[55] He had also by that point developed an elaborate backstory to aid his writing process.[56]

When Star Wars proved successful, Lucas decided to use the film as the basis for an elaborate serial, although at one point he considered walking away from the series altogether.[57] However, Lucas wanted to create an independent filmmaking center—what would become Skywalker Ranch—and saw an opportunity to use the series as a financing agent.[58] Alan Dean Foster had already begun writing the first sequel novel, but Lucas decided to abandon his plan to adapt Foster's work; the book was released as Splinter of the Mind's Eye the following year. At first, Lucas envisioned a series of films with no set number of entries, like the James Bond series. In an interview with Rolling Stone in August 1977, he said that he wanted his friends to each take a turn at directing the films and giving unique interpretations on the series. He also said that the backstory in which Darth Vader turns to the dark side, kills Luke's father and fights Ben Kenobi on a volcano as the Galactic Republic falls would make an excellent sequel.

Later that year, Lucas hired science fiction author Leigh Brackett to write Star Wars II with him. They held story conferences and, by late November 1977, Lucas had produced a handwritten treatment called The Empire Strikes Back. The treatment is similar to the final film, except that Darth Vader does not reveal he is Luke's father. In the first draft that Brackett would write from this, Luke's father appears as a ghost to instruct Luke.[59]

Brackett finished her first draft in early 1978; Lucas has said he was disappointed with it, but before he could discuss it with her, she died of cancer.[60] With no writer available, Lucas had to write his next draft himself. It was this draft in which Lucas first made use of the "Episode" numbering for the films; Empire Strikes Back was listed as Episode II.[61] As Michael Kaminski argues in The Secret History of Star Wars, the disappointment with the first draft probably made Lucas consider different directions in which to take the story.[62] He made use of a new plot twist: Darth Vader claims to be Luke's father. According to Lucas, he found this draft enjoyable to write, as opposed to the yearlong struggles writing the first film, and quickly wrote two more drafts,[63] both in April 1978. He also took the script to a darker extreme by having Han Solo imprisoned in carbonite and left in limbo.[30]

This new story point of Darth Vader being Luke's father had drastic effects on the series. Michael Kaminski argues in his book that it is unlikely that the plot point had ever seriously been considered or even conceived of before 1978, and that the first film was clearly operating under an alternate storyline where Vader was separate from Luke's father;[64] there is not a single reference to this plot point before 1978. After writing the second and third drafts of Empire Strikes Back in which the point was introduced, Lucas reviewed the new backstory he had created: Anakin Skywalker was Ben Kenobi's brilliant student and had a child named Luke, but was swayed to the dark side by Emperor Palpatine (who became a Sith and not simply a politician). Anakin battled Ben Kenobi on the site of a volcano and was wounded, but then resurrected as Darth Vader. Meanwhile, Kenobi hid Luke on Tatooine while the Republic became the Empire and Vader systematically hunted down and killed the Jedi.[65]

With this new backstory in place, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy, changing Empire Strikes Back from Episode II to Episode V in the next draft.[63] Lawrence Kasdan, who had just completed writing Raiders of the Lost Ark, was then hired to write the next drafts, and was given additional input from director Irvin Kershner. Kasdan, Kershner, and producer Gary Kurtz saw the film as a more serious and adult film, which was helped by the new, darker storyline, and developed the series from the light adventure roots of the first film.[66]

By the time he began writing Episode VI in 1981 (then titled Revenge of the Jedi), much had changed. Making Empire Strikes Back was stressful and costly, and Lucas' personal life was disintegrating. Burned out and not wanting to make any more Star Wars films, he vowed that he was done with the series in a May 1983 interview with Time magazine. Lucas' 1981 rough drafts had Darth Vader competing with the Emperor for possession of Luke—and in the second script, the "revised rough draft", Vader became a sympathetic character. Lawrence Kasdan was hired to take over once again and, in these final drafts, Vader was explicitly redeemed and finally unmasked. This change in character would provide a springboard to the "Tragedy of Darth Vader" storyline that underlies the prequels.[67]
Prequel trilogy

After losing much of his fortune in a divorce settlement in 1987, Lucas had no desire to return to Star Wars, and had unofficially canceled the sequel trilogy by the time of Return of the Jedi.[68] At that point, the prequels were only still a series of basic ideas partially pulled from his original drafts of "The Star Wars". Nevertheless, technical advances in the late 1980s and 1990s continued to fascinate Lucas, and he considered that they might make it possible to revisit his 20-year-old material. After Star Wars became popular once again, in the wake of Dark Horse's comic book line and Timothy Zahn's trilogy of novels, Lucas saw that there was still a large audience. His children were older, and with the explosion of CGI technology he was now considering returning to directing.[69] By 1993, it was announced, in Variety among other sources, that he would be making the prequels. He began penning more to the story, now indicating the series would be a tragic one examining Anakin Skywalker's fall to the dark side. Lucas also began to change how the prequels would exist relative to the originals; at first they were supposed to be a "filling-in" of history tangential to the originals, but now he saw that they could form the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death. This was the final step towards turning the film series into a "Saga".[70]

In 1994, Lucas began writing the screenplay to the first prequel, titled Episode I: The Beginning. Following the release of that film, Lucas announced that he would also be directing the next two, and began work on Episode II,[71] The first draft of Episode II was completed just weeks before principal photography, and Lucas hired Jonathan Hales, a writer from The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, to polish it.[72] Unsure of a title, Lucas had jokingly called the film "Jar Jar's Great Adventure".[73] In writing The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas initially decided that Lando Calrissian was a clone and came from a planet of clones which caused the "Clone Wars" mentioned by Princess Leia in A New Hope;[74][75] he later came up with an alternate concept of an army of clone shocktroopers from a remote planet which attacked the Republic and were repelled by the Jedi.[76] The basic elements of that backstory became the plot basis for Episode II, with the new wrinkle added that Palpatine secretly orchestrated the crisis.[33]

Lucas began working on Episode III before Attack of the Clones was released, offering concept artists that the film would open with a montage of seven Clone War battles.[77] As he reviewed the storyline that summer, however, he says he radically re-organized the plot.[78] Michael Kaminski, in The Secret History of Star Wars, offers evidence that issues in Anakin's fall to the dark side prompted Lucas to make massive story changes, first revising the opening sequence to have Palpatine kidnapped and his apprentice, Count Dooku, murdered by Anakin as the first act in the latter's turn towards the dark side.[79] After principal photography was complete in 2003, Lucas made even more massive changes in Anakin's character, re-writing his entire turn to the dark side; he would now turn primarily in a quest to save Padmé's life, rather than the previous version in which that reason was one of several, including that he genuinely believed that the Jedi were evil and plotting to take over the Republic. This fundamental re-write was accomplished both through editing the principal footage, and new and revised scenes filmed during pick-ups in 2004.[80]

Lucas often exaggerated the amount of material he wrote for the series; much of it stemmed from the post‐1978 period when the series grew into a phenomenon. Michael Kaminski explained that these exaggerations were both a publicity and security measure. Kaminski rationalized that since the series' story radically changed throughout the years, it was always Lucas' intention to change the original story retroactively because audiences would only view the material from his perspective.[34][81] When congratulating the producers of the TV series Lost in 2010, Lucas himself jokingly admitted, "when Star Wars first came out, I didn't know where it was going either. The trick is to pretend you've planned the whole thing out in advance. Throw in some father issues and references to other stories – let's call them homages – and you've got a series".[82]
Sequel trilogy
Main article: Star Wars sequel trilogy

A sequel trilogy was reportedly planned (Episodes VII, VIII and IX) by Lucasfilm as a sequel to the original Star Wars trilogy (Episodes IV, V and VI), released between 1977 and 1983.[83] While the similarly discussed Star Wars prequel trilogy (Episodes I, II and III) was ultimately released between 1999 and 2005, Lucasfilm and George Lucas had for many years denied plans for a sequel trilogy, insisting that Star Wars is meant to be a six-part series.[84][85] In May 2008, speaking about the upcoming Star Wars: The Clone Wars film, Lucas maintained his status on the sequel trilogy: "I get asked all the time, 'What happens after Return of the Jedi?,' and there really is no answer for that. The movies were the story of Anakin Skywalker and Luke Skywalker, and when Luke saves the galaxy and redeems his father, that's where that story ends."[86]

In January 2012, Lucas announced that he would step away from blockbuster films and instead produce smaller arthouse films. Asked whether the criticism he received following the prequel trilogy and the alterations to the original trilogy had influenced his decision to retire, Lucas said: "Why would I make any more when everybody yells at you all the time and says what a terrible person you are?"[87]

Despite insisting that a sequel trilogy would never happen, George Lucas began working on story treatments for three new Star Wars films in 2011. In October 2012, The Walt Disney Company agreed to buy Lucasfilm and announced that Star Wars Episode VII would be released in 2015. Later, it was revealed that the three new upcoming films (Episodes VII-IX) would be based on story treatments that had been written by George Lucas prior to the sale of Lucasfilm.[88] The co-chairman of Lucasfilm, Kathleen Kennedy became president of the company, reporting to Walt Disney Studios chairman Alan Horn. In addition, Kennedy will serve as executive producer on new Star Wars feature films, with franchise creator and Lucasfilm founder Lucas serving as creative consultant.[89] The screenplay for Episode VII was originally set to be written by Michael Arndt,[90] but in October 2013 it was announced that writing duties would be taken over by Lawrence Kasdan and J. J. Abrams.[91] On January 25, 2013, The Walt Disney Studios and Lucasfilm officially announced J. J. Abrams as Star Wars Episode VII's director and producer, along with Bryan Burk and Bad Robot Productions.[92]

On November 20, 2012, The Hollywood Reporter reported that Lawrence Kasdan and Simon Kinberg will write and produce Episodes VIII and IX.[93] Kasdan and Kinberg were later confirmed as creative consultants on those films, in addition to writing stand-alone films. In addition, John Williams, who wrote the music for the previous six episodes, has been hired to compose the music for Episodes VII, VIII and IX.[94]

On March 12, 2015, Lucasfilm announced that Looper director Rian Johnson would direct Episode VIII with Ram Bergman as producer for Ram Bergman Productions.[95] Reports initially claimed Johnson would also direct Episode IX, but it was later confirmed he would write only a story treatment.[96][97] When asked about Episode VIII in an August 2014 interview, Johnson said "it's boring to talk about, because the only thing I can really say is, I'm just happy. I don't have the terror I kind of expected I would, at least not yet. I'm sure I will at some point."[98] It was originally scheduled to be released on May 26, 2017, but it's delayed for December 15, 2017.[99][100] J. J. Abrams will serve as executive producer.[101]
Anthology series

On February 5, 2013, Disney CEO Bob Iger confirmed the development of two stand-alone films, each individually written by Lawrence Kasdan and Simon Kinberg.[102] On February 6, Entertainment Weekly reported that Disney is working on two films featuring Han Solo and Boba Fett.[103] Disney CFO Jay Rasulo has described the stand-alone films as origin stories.[104] Kathleen Kennedy explained that the stand-alone films will not crossover with the films of the sequel trilogy, stating, "George was so clear as to how that works. The canon that he created was the Star Wars saga. Right now, Episode VII falls within that canon. The spin-off movies, or we may come up with some other way to call those films, they exist within that vast universe that he created. There is no attempt being made to carry characters (from the stand-alone films) in and out of the saga episodes. Consequently, from the creative standpoint, it's a roadmap that George made pretty clear."[105] In April 2015, Lucasfilm and Kathleen Kennedy announced that the stand-alone films would be referred to as the Star Wars Anthology series.[106][107]
Rogue One
Main article: Rogue One

In May 2014, Lucasfilm announced that Gareth Edwards would direct the first anthology film, to be released on December 16, 2016, with Gary Whitta writing the first draft.[108] On March 12, 2015, the film's title was revealed to be Rogue One with Chris Weitz rewriting the script, with Felicity Jones, Ben Mendelsohn and Diego Luna starring.[109][110] On April 19, 2015, a teaser trailer was shown exclusively during the closing of the Star Wars Celebration. Lucasfilm also announced that filming would begin in the summer of 2015. The plot will revolve around a group of rebels on a mission to steal the Death Star plans; director Edwards stated, "It comes down to a group of individuals who don't have magical powers that have to somehow bring hope to the galaxy." Additionally, Kathleen Kennedy and Kiri Hart confirmed that the stand-alone films will be labeled as "anthology films". Edwards stated that the style of the film will be similar to that of a war film, stating, "It's the reality of war. Good guys are bad. Bad guys are good. It's complicated, layered; a very rich scenario in which to set a movie."[111][112]
Untitled Han Solo Anthology film

On July 7, 2015, Lucasfilm announced, via StarWars.com, that a second Anthology film, which "focuses on how young Han Solo became the smuggler, thief, and scoundrel whom Luke Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi first encountered in the cantina at Mos Eisley",[113] would be released on May 25, 2018. The project will be directed by Phil Lord and Christopher Miller from a script by Lawrence and Jon Kasdan. Kathleen Kennedy will produce the film, Lawrence Kasdan and Jason McGatlin will executive produce, and Will Allegra will co-produce.[114] The Hollywood Reporter stated when reporting the story, that the film is separate to the film that was originally being developed by Josh Trank. That film has now been pushed back to an unconfirmed date.[1] Miles Teller, Ansel Elgort, Dave Franco, Jack Reynor, Scott Eastwood, Logan Lerman, Emory Cohen, Jack O'Connell, Alden Ehrenreich, Taron Egerton and Blake Jenner are among the actors who are in final considerations for the role of Han Solo.[115][116][117] The Wrap reported that Chewbacca will appear.[118] On April 13, 2016, Deadline reports that Ehrenreich has been named as the front runner for the role.[119] Miller tweeted a photo of Solo's blaster from the films.[120] On May 5, 2016, Deadline reports that Ehrenreich is now cast as Solo in the film.[121]
Untitled Anthology film

A third Anthology film rumored to focus on Boba Fett will be released in 2020.[122]
3D releases

At a ShoWest convention in 2005, Lucas demonstrated new technology and stated that he planned to release the six films in a new 3D film format, beginning with A New Hope in 2007.[123] However, by January 2007, Lucasfilm stated on StarWars.com that "there are no definitive plans or dates for releasing the Star Wars saga in 3-D." At Celebration Europe in July 2007, Rick McCallum confirmed that Lucasfilm was "planning to take all six films and turn them into 3-D", but they are "waiting for the companies out there that are developing this technology to bring it down to a cost level that makes it worthwhile for everybody".[124] In July 2008, Jeffrey Katzenberg, the CEO of DreamWorks Animation, revealed that Lucas planned to redo all six of the movies in 3D.[125] In late September 2010, it was announced that The Phantom Menace would be theatrically re-released in 3-D on February 10, 2012.[126][127] The plan was to re-release all six films in order, with the 3-D conversion process taking up to a year to complete for each film.[128] However, the 3D re-releases of episodes II and III were postponed to enable Lucasfilm to concentrate on Episode VII.[129]
Cast and crew
Cast
Further information: List of Star Wars cast members and List of Star Wars characters
Crew and other
Crew and details by film Crew/detail Star Wars:
Episode IV –
A New Hope Star Wars:
Episode V –
The Empire Strikes Back Star Wars:
Episode VI –
Return of the Jedi Star Wars:
Episode I –
The Phantom Menace Star Wars:
Episode II –
Attack of the Clones Star Wars:
Episode III –
Revenge of the Sith Star Wars:
The Clone Wars Star Wars:
Episode VII –
The Force Awakens Rogue One:
A Star Wars Story Star Wars:
Episode VIII Untitled
Han Solo
Anthology film Star Wars:
Episode IX
Director George Lucas Irvin Kershner Richard Marquand George Lucas Dave Filoni J. J. Abrams Gareth Edwards Rian Johnson Phil Lord and Christopher Miller Colin Trevorrow
Producer Gary Kurtz
Rick McCallum (1997 Special Edition) Howard Kazanjian
Rick McCallum (1997 Special Edition) Rick McCallum Catherine Winder Kathleen Kennedy
J. J. Abrams
Bryan Burk Kathleen Kennedy
Tony To Kathleen Kennedy
Ram Bergman
Lawrence Kasdan
Simon Kinberg Kathleen Kennedy
Will Allegra (co-producer) Kathleen Kennedy
Ram Bergman
Executive
producer George Lucas Jason McGatlin
Tommy Harper Jason McGatlin
Simon Emanuel J. J. Abrams Lawrence Kasdan
Jason McGatlin J. J. Abrams
Editor Paul Hirsch
Richard Chew
Marcia Lucas
George Lucas (uncredited)
T. M. Christopher (1997 Special Edition) Paul Hirsch
Marcia Lucas (uncredited)
George Lucas (uncredited)
T. M. Christopher (1997 Special Edition) Sean Barton
Marcia Lucas
Duwayne Dunham
George Lucas (uncredited)
T. M. Christopher (1997 Special Edition) Ben Burtt
Paul Martin Smith Ben Burtt
George Lucas (uncredited) Roger Barton
Ben Burtt Jason Tucker Mary Jo Markey
Maryann Brandon Jabez Olssen Bob Ducsay
Director of
photography Gilbert Taylor Peter Suschitzky Alan Hume David Tattersall Daniel Mindel Greig Fraser Steve Yedlin
Music John Williams Kevin Kiner
Themes:
John Williams John Williams Alexandre Desplat
Themes:
John Williams John Williams John Williams
Writer George Lucas Screenplay:
Leigh Brackett
Lawrence Kasdan
Story:
George Lucas Screenplay:
Lawrence Kasdan
George Lucas
Story:
George Lucas George Lucas Screenplay:
George Lucas
Jonathan Hales
Story by:
George Lucas George Lucas Henry Gilroy
Steven Melching
Scott Murphy Lawrence Kasdan
J. J. Abrams
Michael Arndt John Knoll (original idea)
Gary Whitta (story)
Chris Weitz (screenplay) Rian Johnson Lawrence Kasdan
Jon Kasdan Rian Johnson (story) Colin Trevorrow
Derek Connolly (screenplay)
Distributor 20th Century Fox Warner Bros. Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures
Running time 121 minutes[130] 124 minutes[131] 131 minutes[132] 133 minutes[133] 142 minutes[134] 140 minutes[135] 98 minutes[136] 135 minutes[137]
Reception
Box office performance
Film Release date Budget Box office gross Box office ranking
North America Other
territories Worldwide Adjusted for
inflation
(North America)[a] All-time
North America All-time
worldwide
Star Wars[139] May 25, 1977 $11 Million $460,998,007 $314,400,000 $775,398,007 $1,314,850,434 #8 #57
The Empire Strikes Back[140] May 21, 1980 $11 - $33 Million $290,475,067 $247,900,000 $538,375,067 $751,204,635 #65 #134
Return of the Jedi[141] May 25, 1983 $32.5–42.7 Million $309,306,177 $165,800,000 $475,106,177 $724,064,338 #50 #161
Original Star Wars trilogy total $54.5-86.7 Million $1,060,779,251 $728,100,000 $1,788,879,251 $2,790,119,407
Episode I – The Phantom Menace[142] May 19, 1999 $115 Million $474,544,677 $552,500,000 $1,027,044,677 $699,066,761 #7 #21
Episode II – Attack of the Clones[143] May 16, 2002 $310,676,740 $338,721,588 $649,398,328 $414,858,818 #48 #91
Episode III – Revenge of the Sith[144] May 19, 2005 $113 Million $380,270,577 $468,484,191 $848,754,768 $460,743,580 #25 #45
Prequel Star Wars trilogy total $343 Million $1,165,491,994 $1,359,705,779 $2,525,197,773 $1,574,669,159
Star Wars: The Clone Wars[145] August 15, 2008 $8.5 Million $35,161,554 $33,121,290 $68,282,844 $38,645,102 #1,942 —
Star Wars: The Force Awakens December 18, 2015 $200 million $932,318,187 $1,126,005,000 $2,058,323,187 $932,318,187 #1 #3
All Star Wars films total $405.5-438.2 Million $3,160,504,268 $3,225,327,069 $6,394,819,524 $5,335,751,855
Critical and public response
Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic CinemaScore
Star Wars 94% (99 reviews)[146] 92 (14 reviews)[147]
The Empire Strikes Back 94% (87 reviews)[148] 79 (16 reviews)[149]
Return of the Jedi 80% (84 reviews)[150] 52 (14 reviews)[151]
Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace 56% (212 reviews)[152] 51 (36 reviews)[153] A−[154]
Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones 66% (242 reviews)[155] 54 (39 reviews)[156] A−[154]
Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith 79% (282 reviews)[157] 68 (40 reviews)[158] A−[154]
Star Wars: The Clone Wars 18% (163 reviews)[159] 35 (30 reviews)[160] B−[154]
Star Wars: The Force Awakens 92% (342 reviews)[161] 81 (52 reviews)[162] A[154]
List indicator(s)

A dark grey cell indicates the information is not available for the film.

Academy Awards

The seven films together have been nominated for 27 Academy Awards, of which they won seven. The films were also awarded a total of three Special Achievement Awards.
Category Awards won
Star Wars The Empire Strikes Back Return of the Jedi The Phantom Menace Attack of the Clones Revenge of the Sith The Force Awakens
Actor in a Supporting Role Nomination
(Alec Guinness)
Art Direction-Set Decoration Win Nomination Nomination
Costume Design Win
Director Nomination
(George Lucas)
Film Editing Win Nomination
Makeup Nomination
Music (Original Score) Win Nomination Nomination Nomination
Picture Nomination
Screenplay – Original Nomination
Sound Editing Nomination Nomination Nomination
Sound (Mixing) Win Win Nomination Nomination Nomination
Visual Effects Win Nomination Nomination Nomination
Special Achievement Award Win
(Alien, Creature and Robot Voices) Win
(Visual Effects) Win
(Visual Effects)
In other media
Main article: Star Wars expanded universe
Cosplay of the Star Wars character, Boba Fett. The popular character was first incorporated in the Expanded Universe in the television film Star Wars Holiday Special until appearing in the main film series.[163]

The term Expanded Universe (EU) is an umbrella term for officially licensed Star Wars material outside of the six feature films. The material expands the stories told in the films, taking place anywhere from 25,000 years before The Phantom Menace to 140 years after Return of the Jedi. The first Expanded Universe story appeared in Marvel Comics' Star Wars #7 in January 1978 (the first six issues of the series having been an adaptation of the film), followed quickly by Alan Dean Foster's novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye the following month.[164]

Despite Disney's acquisition of the product, George Lucas retains artistic control over the Star Wars universe.[citation needed] For example, the death of central characters and similar changes in the status quo requires his approval before authors were allowed to proceed. In addition, Lucasfilm Licensing and the new Lucasfilm Story Group devote efforts to ensure continuity between the works of various authors across companies.[165] Elements of the Expanded Universe have been adopted by Lucas for use in the films, such as the name of capital planet Coruscant, which first appeared in Timothy Zahn's novel Heir to the Empire before being used in The Phantom Menace. Additionally, Lucas so liked the character Aayla Secura, who was introduced in Dark Horse Comics' Star Wars series, that he included her as a character in Attack of the Clones.[166]

A radio adaptation of the original 1977 film was first broadcast on National Public Radio in 1981. The adaptation was written by science fiction author Brian Daley and directed by John Madden. It was followed by adaptations of The Empire Strikes Back in 1983 and Return of the Jedi in 1996. The adaptations included background material created by Lucas but not used in the films. Mark Hamill, Anthony Daniels, and Billy Dee Williams reprised their roles as Luke Skywalker, C-3PO, and Lando Calrissian, respectively, except in Return of the Jedi in which Luke was played by Joshua Fardon and Lando by Arye Gross. The series also used John Williams' original score from the films and Ben Burtt's original sound designs.[167]

While Lucasfilm strived to maintain internal consistency between the films and television content with the expanded universe, only the films and the second Clone Wars television series are regarded as absolute canon, since Lucas worked on them directly. On April 25, 2014—anticipating future film installments—the company announced that they had devised a "story group" to oversee and co-ordinate all creative development. The first new on-screen canon to be produced will be the television series Star Wars Rebels. Previous EU titles will be reprinted under the "Legends" banner.[168]
Other films

In addition to the two trilogies and the Clone Wars film, several other authorized films have been produced:

Star Wars Holiday Special, a 1978 two-hour television special, broadcast only once on CBS and never released to home video. Notable for the introduction of Boba Fett.
Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure, a 1984 American made-for-TV film—released theatrically overseas.
Ewoks: The Battle for Endor, a 1985 American made-for-TV film—released theatrically overseas.
The Great Heep, a 1986 animated television special from the Star Wars: Droids TV series.
Lego Star Wars: Revenge of the Brick, a 2005 animated comedy short film based on Revenge of the Sith.[169]
Lego Star Wars: The Quest for R2-D2, a 2009 official comedy spoof primarily based on The Clone Wars film.
Lego Star Wars: The Padawan Menace, a 2011 animated comedy TV special primarily based on The Clone Wars TV series.[170]
Lego Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Out, a 2012 animated comedy TV special primarily based on the original trilogy.[171]

Television series

Following the success of the Star Wars films and their subsequent merchandising, several animated television series have been created:

Star Wars: Droids; also known as Droids: The Adventures of R2-D2 and C-3PO, which premiered in September 1985, focused on the travels of R2-D2 and C-3PO as they shift through various owners/masters, and vaguely fills in the gaps between the events of Episode III and Episode IV.
Star Wars: Ewoks; also known as Ewoks, was simultaneously released in September 1985 and focused on the adventures of Wicket and various other recognizable Ewok characters from the original trilogy in the years leading up to Episode VI.
Star Wars: Clone Wars; an animated micro-series created by Genndy Tartakovsky (Dexter's Laboratory, Samurai Jack, etc.), which aired on Cartoon Network from November 2003 to March 2005.[172]
Star Wars: The Clone Wars; a CGI-animated series based on the animated film of the same name, which aired on Cartoon Network from October 2008 to March 2013. The final season of the series aired on Netflix in March 2014.[173]
Star Wars Rebels; a CGI-animated series set between Episode III and Episode IV, which premiered as a special on Disney Channel and began airing on Disney XD in October 2014.[174]
Lego Star Wars: The Yoda Chronicles, an animated comedy mini-series that aired on Cartoon Network in 2013 and Disney XD in 2014.
Lego Star Wars: Droid Tales, another animated comedy mini-series that aired on Disney XD from July to November 2015.[175]
Star Wars Detours,[176] an animated comedy series written by Brendan Hay, who is a writer for the comedy news program The Daily Show, and with creative consulting from the co-creators of Robot Chicken: Seth Green and Matthew Senreich. The series will take place during the original trilogy and the setting will be remote from the front line of war.[177] Following the Disney purchase, this series was put on indefinite hold.

A live-action television project has been in varying stages of development at Lucasfilm since 2005, when George Lucas announced plans for a television series set between the prequel and original trilogies.[178] The proposed series explores criminal and political power struggles in the aftermath of the fall of the Republic. Approximately fifty scripts have been written – Ronald D. Moore was one of the project's enlisted writers[178] – and, as of December 2015, are still in possible development at Lucasfilm.[179]
Literature
Main articles: List of Star Wars novels and List of Star Wars comic books

Star Wars-based fiction predates the release of the first film, with the 1976 novelization of Star Wars (ghost-written by Alan Dean Foster and credited to Lucas). Foster's 1978 novel, Splinter of the Mind's Eye, was the first Expanded Universe work to be released. In addition to filling in the time between the original 1977 film and The Empire Strikes Back, this additional content greatly expanded the Star Wars timeline before and after the film series. Star Wars fiction flourished during the time of the original trilogy (1977–83) but slowed to a trickle afterwards. In 1992, however, Timothy Zahn's Thrawn trilogy debuted, sparking a new interest in the Star Wars universe. Since then, several hundred tie-in novels have been published by Bantam and Del Rey. A similar resurgence in the Expanded Universe occurred in 1996 with the Steve Perry novel Shadows of the Empire, set in between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, and accompanying video game and comic book series.[180]

LucasBooks radically changed the face of the Star Wars universe with the introduction of the New Jedi Order series, which takes place some 20 years after Return of the Jedi and stars a host of new characters alongside series originals. For younger audiences, three series have been introduced. The Jedi Apprentice series follows the adventures of Obi-Wan Kenobi and his master Qui-Gon Jinn in the years before The Phantom Menace. The Jedi Quest series follows the adventures of Obi-Wan and his apprentice Anakin Skywalker in between The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones. The Last of the Jedi series follows the adventures of Obi-Wan and another surviving Jedi almost immediately, set in between Revenge of the Sith and A New Hope.

Following Disney's purchase of the franchise, Disney Publishing Worldwide also announced that Del Rey would publish a new line of canon Star Wars books under the Lucasfilm Story Group being released starting in September on a bi-monthly schedule.[181] The Star Wars Legends banner would be used for those Extended Universe materials that are in print.[182]

Marvel Comics published Star Wars comic book series and adaptations from 1977 to 1986. A wide variety of creators worked on this series, including Roy Thomas, Archie Goodwin, Howard Chaykin, Al Williamson, Carmine Infantino, Gene Day, Walt Simonson, Michael Golden, Chris Claremont, Whilce Portacio, Jo Duffy, and Ron Frenz. The Los Angeles Times Syndicate published a Star Wars newspaper strip by Russ Manning, Goodwin and Williamson[183][184] with Goodwin writing under a pseudonym. In the late 1980s, Marvel announced it would publish a new Star Wars comic by Tom Veitch and Cam Kennedy. However, in December 1991, Dark Horse Comics acquired the Star Wars license and used it to launch a number of ambitious sequels to the original trilogy instead, including the popular Dark Empire stories.[185] They have since gone on to publish a large number of original adventures set in the Star Wars universe. There have also been parody comics, including Tag and Bink.[186] On January 3, 2014, Marvel Comics—itself a Disney subsidiary since 2009—announced that it would once again publish Star Wars comic books and graphic novels, taking over from Dark Horse, with the first release arriving on January 14, 2015.[187]
Games
Main articles: Star Wars video games, List of Star Wars video games, Star Wars trading card and Star Wars role-playing games

Since 1977, dozens of board, card, video, miniature, and tabletop role-playing games, among other types, have been published bearing the Star Wars name, beginning in 1977 with the board game Star Wars: Escape from the Death Star[188] (not to be confused with another board game with the same title, published in 1990).[189] Star Wars video games commercialization started in 1982 with Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back published for the Atari 2600 by Parker Brothers. Since then, Star Wars has opened the way to a myriad of space-flight simulation games, first-person shooter games, role-playing video games, RTS games, and others. Three different official tabletop role-playing games have been developed for the Star Wars universe: a version by West End Games in the 1980s and 1990s, one by Wizards of the Coast in the 2000s and one by Fantasy Flight Games in the 2010s.

The best-selling games so far are the Lego Star Wars and the Battlefront series, with 12 million and 10 million units respectively[190][191] while the most critically acclaimed is the first Knights of the Old Republic.[192] The most recently released games are Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga, Lego Star Wars III: The Clone Wars, Star Wars: The Force Unleashed and Star Wars: The Force Unleashed II, for the PS3, PSP, PS2, Xbox 360, Nintendo DS and Wii. While The Complete Saga focuses on all six episodes of the series, The Force Unleashed, of the same name of the multimedia project which it is a part of, takes place in the largely unexplored time period between Revenge of the Sith and A New Hope and casts players as Darth Vader's "secret apprentice" hunting down the remaining Jedi. The game features a new game engine, and was released on September 16, 2008 in the United States.[193][194] There are three more titles based on the Clone Wars which were released for the Nintendo DS (Star Wars: The Clone Wars – Jedi Alliance) and Wii (Star Wars: The Clone Wars – Lightsaber Duels and Star Wars: The Clone Wars – Republic Heroes).

Star Wars trading cards have been published since the first "blue" series, by Topps, in 1977.[195] Dozens of series have been produced, with Topps being the licensed creator in the United States. Some of the card series are of film stills, while others are original art. Many of the cards have become highly collectible with some very rare "promos", such as the 1993 Galaxy Series II "floating Yoda" P3 card often commanding US$ 1 000 or more. While most "base" or "common card" sets are plentiful, many "insert" or "chase cards" are very rare.[196] From 1995 until 2001, Decipher, In
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Star Trek
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Star trek)
This article is about the Star Trek franchise. For other uses, see Star Trek (disambiguation).
Star Trek
Star Trek movie logo 2009.jpg
The Star Trek logo as it appears in the reboot
Creator Gene Roddenberry
Original work Star Trek: The Original Series
Print publications
Novels List of novels
Comics List of comics
Films and television
Films
Main article: Star Trek (film series)

The Motion Picture (1979)
The Wrath of Khan (1982)
The Search for Spock (1984)
The Voyage Home (1986)
The Final Frontier (1989)
The Undiscovered Country (1991)
Generations (1994)
First Contact (1996)
Insurrection (1998)
Nemesis (2002)
Star Trek (2009)
Into Darkness (2013)
Beyond (2016)

Television series

The Original Series (1966–1969)
The Animated Series (1973–1974)
Phase II (1978) (undeveloped)
The Next Generation (1987–1994)
Deep Space Nine (1993–1999)
Voyager (1995–2001)
Enterprise (2001–2005)
Untitled series (2017–)

Games
Video games

List of games

Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment franchise created by Gene Roddenberry and owned by CBS (TV series) and Paramount Pictures (Film Rights).[Note 1] Star Trek: The Original Series and its live-action TV spin-off series, Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, and Star Trek: Enterprise as well as the Star Trek film franchise make up the main canon. The canonicity of Star Trek: The Animated Series has been accepted,[Note 2] and the expansive library of Star Trek novels and comics is generally considered non-canon, although still part of the franchise.

The first series, now referred to as The Original Series, debuted in 1966 and ran for three seasons on NBC. It followed the interstellar adventures of James T. Kirk and the crew of the starship Enterprise, an exploration vessel of a 23rd-century interstellar "United Federation of Planets". In creating the first Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by Westerns, Wagon Train, the Horatio Hornblower novels and Gulliver's Travels. In fact, the original series was almost titled Wagon Train to the Stars. These adventures continued in the short-lived Star Trek: The Animated Series and six feature films. Four spin-off television series were eventually produced: Star Trek: The Next Generation followed the crew of a new starship Enterprise set a century after the original series; Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Voyager, set contemporaneously with The Next Generation; and Star Trek: Enterprise, set before the original series, in the early days of human interstellar travel. Four additional The Next Generation feature films were produced. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a relaunch with a prequel to the original series set in an alternate timeline titled simply Star Trek. This film featured a new cast portraying younger versions of the crew from the original show.[Note 3] A sequel to that film, Star Trek Into Darkness, premiered on May 16, 2013. A thirteenth film feature and sequel, Star Trek Beyond, has been confirmed for release in July 2016, to coincide with the franchise's 50th anniversary. In November 2015, CBS announced the development of a new Star Trek TV series to be shown on a digital platform from January 2017.

Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades.[1] Fans of the franchise are called Trekkies or Trekkers. The franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, figurines, novels, toys, and comics. Star Trek had a themed attraction in Las Vegas that opened in 1998 and closed in September 2008. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world. The series has its own full-fledged constructed language, Klingon. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions.

Star Trek is noted for its influence on the world outside of science fiction. It has been cited as an inspiration for several technological inventions, including the cell phone and tablet computers.[2] The franchise is also noted for its progressive civil rights stances.[2] The Original Series included one of television's first multiracial casts. Star Trek references can be found throughout popular culture from movies such as the submarine thriller Crimson Tide to the animated series South Park.

Contents

1 Conception and setting
2 Mythology
3 History and production
3.1 Beginnings
3.2 Rebirth
3.3 After Roddenberry
3.4 Reboot
4 Television series
4.1 The Original Series (1966–69)
4.2 The Animated Series (1973–74)
4.3 The Next Generation (1987–1994)
4.4 Deep Space Nine (1993–99)
4.5 Voyager (1995–2001)
4.6 Enterprise (2001–05)
4.7 Untitled series (2017–)
5 Feature films
6 Merchandise
6.1 Books
6.2 Comics
6.3 Games
6.4 Magazines
7 Cultural impact
7.1 Parodies
7.2 Notable fan fiction
8 Awards and honors
9 Corporate ownership
10 See also
11 Notes
12 References
13 Bibliography
14 External links

Conception and setting
The Starfleet emblem as seen in the franchise.

As early as 1964, Gene Roddenberry drafted a proposal for the science-fiction series that would become Star Trek. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "Wagon Train to the Stars" (like the popular Western TV series)[3]—he privately told friends that he was modeling it on Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, intending each episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as a morality tale.[4]

Most Star Trek stories depict the adventures of humans[Note 4] and aliens who serve in Starfleet, the space-borne humanitarian and peacekeeping armada of the United Federation of Planets. The protagonists have altruistic values, and must apply these ideals to difficult dilemmas.

Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of Star Trek represent allegories of contemporary cultural realities. Star Trek: The Original Series addressed issues of the 1960s,[5] just as later spin-offs have reflected issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty, authoritarianism, imperialism, class warfare, economics, racism, religion, human rights, sexism, feminism, and the role of technology.[6] Roddenberry stated: "[By creating] a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, religion, Vietnam, politics, and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek: we were sending messages and fortunately they all got by the network."[7]

Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement, though he was not fully forthcoming to the networks about this. He wanted Star Trek to show humanity what it might develop into, if it would learn from the lessons of the past, most specifically by ending violence. An extreme example is the alien species, the Vulcans, who had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry also gave Star Trek an anti-war message and depicted the United Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United Nations.[8] His efforts were opposed by the network because of concerns over marketability, e.g., they opposed Roddenberry's insistence that the Enterprise have a racially diverse crew.[9]

Star Trek has also been accused of evincing racism and imperialism, however, by frequently depicting Starfleet and the Federation trying to impose their values and customs on other planets.[10][11]
Mythology

The central trio of Kirk, Spock and McCoy from Star Trek: The Original Series was modeled on classical mythological storytelling.[12]

William Shatner said: “There is a mythological component [to pop culture], especially with science fiction. It’s people looking for answers – and science fiction offers to explain the inexplicable, the same as religion tends to do… If we accept the premise that it has a mythological element, then all the stuff about going out into space and meeting new life – trying to explain it and put a human element to it – it’s a hopeful vision. All these things offer hope and imaginative solutions for the future.”[13]

Richard Lutz wrote: “The enduring popularity of Star Trek is due to the underlying mythology which binds fans together by virtue of their shared love of stories involving exploration, discovery, adventure and friendship that promote an egalitarian and peace loving society where technology and diversity are valued rather than feared and citizens work together for the greater good. Thus Star Trek offers a hopeful vision of the future and a template for our lives and our society that we can aspire to.”[14]
History and production


Beginnings
Star Trek creator, producer and writer Gene Roddenberry
Captain James T. Kirk and Commander Spock, played by William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy, pictured here in The Original Series.

In early 1964, Roddenberry presented a brief treatment for a proposed Star Trek TV series to Desilu Productions comparing it to Wagon Train, "a Wagon Train to the stars."[15] Desilu worked with Roddenberry to develop the treatment into a script, which was then pitched to NBC.[16]

NBC paid to make a pilot, "The Cage", starring Jeffrey Hunter as Enterprise Captain Christopher Pike. NBC rejected The Cage, but the executives were still impressed with the concept, and made the unusual decision to commission a second pilot: "Where No Man Has Gone Before".[16]

The first regular episode ("The Man Trap") of Star Trek: The Original Series aired on Thursday, September 8, 1966.[17] While the show initially enjoyed high ratings, the average rating of the show at the end of its first season dropped to 52nd (out of 94 programs).

Unhappy with the show's ratings, NBC threatened to cancel the show during its second season.[18] The show's fan base, led by Bjo Trimble, conducted an unprecedented letter-writing campaign, petitioning the network to keep the show on the air.[18][19] NBC renewed the show, but moved it from primetime to the "Friday night death slot", and substantially reduced its budget.[20] In protest Roddenberry resigned as producer and reduced his direct involvement in Star Trek, which led to Fred Freiberger becoming producer for the show's third and final season.[Note 5] Despite another letter-writing campaign, NBC cancelled the series after three seasons and 79 episodes.[16]
Rebirth

After the original series was cancelled, Paramount Studios, which had bought the series from Desilu, licensed the broadcast syndication rights to help recoup the production losses. Reruns began in the fall of 1969 and by the late 1970s the series aired in over 150 domestic and 60 international markets. This helped Star Trek develop a cult following greater than its popularity during its original run.[21]

One sign of the series' growing popularity was the first Star Trek convention which occurred on January 21–23, 1972 in New York City. Although the original estimate of attendees was only a few hundred, several thousand fans turned up. Star Trek fans continue to attend similar conventions worldwide.[22]

The series' newfound success led to the idea of reviving the franchise.[23] Filmation with Paramount Television produced the first post original series show, Star Trek: The Animated Series. It ran on NBC for 22 half-hour episodes over two seasons on Saturday mornings from 1973 to 1974.[24] Although short-lived, typical for animated productions in that time slot during that period, the series garnered the franchise's only "Best Series" Emmy Award as opposed to the franchise's later technical ones. Paramount Pictures and Roddenberry began developing a new series, Star Trek: Phase II, in May 1975 in response to the franchise's newfound popularity. Work on the series ended, however, when the proposed Paramount Television Service folded.

Following the success of the science fiction movies Star Wars and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Paramount adapted the planned pilot episode of Phase II into the feature film, Star Trek: The Motion Picture. The film opened in North America on December 7, 1979, with mixed reviews from critics. The film earned $139 million worldwide, below expectations but enough for Paramount to create a sequel. The studio forced Roddenberry to relinquish creative control of future sequels.

The success of the critically acclaimed sequel, Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, reversed the fortunes of the franchise. While the sequel grossed less than the first movie, The Wrath of Khan's lower production costs made it net more profit. Paramount produced six Star Trek feature films between 1979 and 1991. In response to the popularity of Star Trek feature films, the franchise returned to television with Star Trek: The Next Generation (TNG) in 1987. Paramount chose to distribute it as a first-run syndication show rather than a network show.[25]
After Roddenberry

Following Star Trek: The Motion Picture, Roddenberry's role was changed from producer to creative consultant with minimal input to the films while being heavily involved with the creation of Star Trek: The Next Generation. Roddenberry died on October 24, 1991, giving executive producer Rick Berman control of the franchise.[26][27] Star Trek had become known to those within Paramount as "the franchise", because of its great success and recurring role as a tent pole for the studio when other projects failed.[28] TNG had the highest ratings of any Star Trek series and became the #1 syndicated show during the last years of its original seven-season run.[29] In response to TNG's success, Paramount released a spin-off series Deep Space Nine in 1993. While never as popular as TNG, the series had sufficient ratings for it to last seven seasons.

In January 1995, a few months after TNG ended, Paramount released a fourth TV series, Voyager. Star Trek saturation reached a peak in the mid-1990s with DS9 and Voyager airing concurrently and three of the four TNG-based feature films released in 1994, 1996, and 1998. By 1998, Star Trek was Paramount's most important property; the enormous profits of "the franchise" funded much of the rest of the studio's operations.[30]:49–50,54 Voyager became the flagship show of the new United Paramount Network (UPN) and thus the first major network Star Trek series since the original.[31]

After Voyager ended, UPN produced Enterprise, a prequel TV series to the original show. Enterprise did not enjoy the high ratings of its predecessors and UPN threatened to cancel it after the series' third season. Fans launched a campaign reminiscent of the one that saved the third season of the Original Series. Paramount renewed Enterprise for a fourth season,[32] but moved it to the Friday night death slot.[33] Like the Original Series, Enterprise ratings dropped during this time slot, and UPN cancelled Enterprise at the end of its fourth season. Enterprise aired its final episode on May 13, 2005.[34] Fan groups, "Save Enterprise", attempted to save the series[35] and tried to raise $30 million to privately finance a fifth season of Enterprise.[35] Though the effort garnered considerable press, the fan drive failed to save the series. The cancellation of Enterprise ended an eighteen-year continuous production run of Star Trek programming on television. The poor box office performance in 2002 of the film Nemesis, cast an uncertain light upon the future of the franchise. Paramount relieved Berman, the franchise producer, of control of Star Trek.
Reboot

Paramount turned down several proposals in the mid-2000s to restart the franchise. These included pitches from film director Bryan Singer,[36] Babylon 5 creator J. Michael Straczynski,[37] and Trek actors Jonathan Frakes and William Shatner.[38] The studio also turned down an animated web series.[39] Instead, Paramount hired a new creative team to reinvigorate the franchise in 2007. Writers Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman and Lost producer, J. J. Abrams, had the freedom to reinvent the feel of Trek.

The team created the franchise's eleventh film, titled simply Star Trek, releasing it in May 2009. The film featured a new cast portraying the crew of the original show. Star Trek was a prequel of the original series set in an alternate timeline. This gave the film and future sequels to it freedom from the need to conform to the franchise's canonical timeline. The eleventh Star Trek film's marketing campaign targeted non-fans, even stating in the film's advertisements that "this is not your father's Star Trek".[40]

The film earned considerable critical and financial success, grossing in inflation-adjusted dollars more box office sales than any previous Star Trek film.[41] The plaudits include the franchise's first Academy Award (for makeup). The film's major cast members are contracted for two sequels.[42] Paramount's sequel to the 2009 film, Star Trek Into Darkness, premiered in Sydney, Australia on April 23, 2013, but the film did not release in the United States until May 17, 2013.[43] While the film was not as successful in the North American box office as its predecessor, internationally, in terms of box office receipts, Into Darkness was the most successful of the franchise.[44] A thirteenth film entitled Star Trek Beyond is scheduled to be released on July 8, 2016.[45]

Star Trek will return to the small screen January 2017. The new series will be the first series produced specifically for CBS All Access.[46] The series will only be available to subscribers of the service.
Television series

Six television series make up the bulk of the Star Trek mythos: The Original Series, The Animated Series, The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine, Voyager, and Enterprise. All the different versions in total amount to 726 Star Trek episodes across the 30 seasons of the TV series.[Note 6]
The Original Series (1966–69)
The Original Series logo, common throughout the franchise.
William Shatner played the unflappable Captain James T. Kirk in The Original Series, The Animated Series, and seven films, helping to create the standard for all subsequent fictional Starfleet captains.
Main article: Star Trek: The Original Series

Star Trek: The Original Series or "TOS"[Note 7] debuted in the United States on NBC on September 8, 1966.[47] The show tells the tale of the crew of the starship Enterprise and its five-year mission "to boldly go where no man has gone before." The original 1966–1969 television series featured William Shatner as Captain James T. Kirk, Leonard Nimoy as Spock, DeForest Kelley as Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy, James Doohan as Montgomery "Scotty" Scott, Nichelle Nichols as Uhura, George Takei as Hikaru Sulu, and Walter Koenig as Pavel Chekov.[48] During the series' original run, it earned several nominations for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and won twice: for the two-parter "The Menagerie" and the Harlan Ellison-written episode "The City on the Edge of Forever".[49]

NBC canceled the show after three seasons; the last original episode aired on June 3, 1969.[50][51] The petition near the end of the second season to save the show signed by many Caltech students and its multiple Hugo nominations would, however, indicate that despite low Nielsen ratings, it was highly popular with science fiction fans and engineering students.[52] The series later became popular in reruns and found a cult following.[47]
The Animated Series (1973–74)
The Animated Series logo
Main article: Star Trek: The Animated Series

Star Trek: The Animated Series, produced by Filmation, ran for two seasons from 1973 to 1974. Most of the original cast performed the voices of their characters from The Original Series, and many of the writers who worked on The Original Series, D. C. Fontana, David Gerrold, and Paul Schneider, wrote for the series. While the animated format allowed the producers to create more exotic alien landscapes and life forms, animation errors and liberal reuse of shots and musical cues have tarnished the series' reputation.[53] Although it was originally sanctioned by Paramount, which owned the Star Trek franchise following its acquisition of Desilu in 1967, Gene Roddenberry often spoke of TAS as non-canon.[54] Star Trek writers have used elements of the animated series in later live-action series and movies, and as of June 2007, the Animated Series has references in the library section of the official Startrek.com web site.

The Animated Series won Star Trek's first Emmy Award on May 15, 1975.[55] Star Trek TAS briefly returned to television in the mid-1980s on the children's cable network Nickelodeon. Nickelodeon's Evan McGuire greatly admired the show and used its various creative components as inspiration for his short series called Piggly Wiggly Hears A Sound which never aired. Nickelodeon parent Viacom would purchase Paramount in 1994. In the early 1990s, the Sci-Fi Channel also began rerunning TAS. The complete TAS was also released on Laserdisc format during the 1980s.[56] The complete series was first released in the USA on eleven volumes of VHS tapes in 1989. All 22 episodes were released on DVD in 2006.
The Next Generation (1987–1994)
The Next Generation logo
Sir Patrick Stewart, who played Captain Jean-Luc Picard in The Next Generation and subsequent films.
Main article: Star Trek: The Next Generation

Star Trek: The Next Generation, also known as "TNG", takes place about a century after The Original Series (2364–2370). It features a new starship, the Enterprise-D, and a new crew led by Captain Jean-Luc Picard (Patrick Stewart) and Commander William Riker (Jonathan Frakes). Some crewmembers represent new alien races, including Deanna Troi, a half-Betazoid counselor played by Marina Sirtis. Michael Dorn plays Worf, the first Klingon officer in Starfleet, alongside Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, LeVar Burton as chief engineer Geordi La Forge, the android Data portrayed by Brent Spiner, and Dr. Crusher's son Wesley Crusher played by Wil Wheaton. The show premiered on September 28, 1987, and ran for seven seasons, ending on May 23, 1994.[57] It had the highest ratings of any of the Star Trek series and became the #1 syndicated show during the last few years of its original run, allowing it to act as a springboard for ideas in other series. Many relationships and races introduced in TNG became the basis of episodes in Deep Space 9 and Voyager.[29] During its run it earned several Emmy awards and nominations – including a nomination for Best Dramatic Series during its final season – two Hugo Awards and a Peabody Award for Outstanding Television Programming for the episode "The Big Goodbye".[58]
Deep Space Nine (1993–99)
The Deep Space Nine logo
Avery Brooks played Captain Benjamin Sisko in Deep Space Nine, commander of the titular space station and Emissary of the Prophets.
Main article: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine

Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, also known as "DS9", takes place during the last years and the immediate post-years of The Next Generation (2369–2375) and aired for seven seasons, debuting the week of January 3, 1993.[59] Like Star Trek: The Next Generation, it aired in syndication in the United States and Canada. Unlike the other Star Trek series, DS9 takes place primarily on a space station rather than aboard a starship.

The show begins after the brutal Cardassian occupation of the planet Bajor. The liberated Bajoran people ask the United Federation of Planets to help run a Cardassian built space station, Deep Space Nine, near Bajor. After the Federation takes control of the station, the protagonists of the show discover a uniquely stable wormhole that provides immediate access to the distant Gamma Quadrant making Bajor and the station one of the most strategically important locations in the galaxy.[60] The show chronicles the events of the station's crew, led by Commander (later Captain) Benjamin Sisko, played by Avery Brooks, and Major (later Colonel) Kira Nerys, played by Nana Visitor. Recurring plot elements include the repercussions of the Cardassian occupation of Bajor, Sisko's spiritual role for the Bajorans as the Emissary of the Prophets, and in later seasons a war with the Dominion.

Deep Space Nine stands apart from earlier Trek series for its lengthy serialized storytelling, conflict within the crew, and religious themes—all elements that critics and audiences praised but Roddenberry forbade in the original series and The Next Generation.[61] Nevertheless, he was informed before his death of DS9, making this the last Star Trek series connected to Gene Roddenberry.[62]
Voyager (1995–2001)
The Voyager logo
Kate Mulgrew, who played Captain Kathryn Janeway, the lead character in Voyager, and the first female commanding officer in a leading role of a Star Trek series.
Main article: Star Trek: Voyager

Star Trek: Voyager ran for seven seasons, airing from January 16, 1995, to May 23, 2001, launching a new Paramount-owned television network UPN. It features Kate Mulgrew as Captain Kathryn Janeway,[63] the first female commanding officer in a leading role of a Star Trek series, and Commander Chakotay, played by Robert Beltran.

Voyager takes place at about the same time period as Deep Space Nine and the years following that show's end (2371–2378). The premiere episode has the USS Voyager and its crew pursue a Maquis (Federation rebels) ship. Both ships become stranded in the Delta Quadrant about 70,000 light-years from Earth.[64] Faced with a 75-year voyage to Earth, the crew must learn to work together to overcome challenges on their long and perilous journey home while also seeking ways to shorten the voyage. Like Deep Space Nine, early seasons of Voyager feature more conflict between its crewmembers than seen in later episodes. Such conflict often arises from friction between "by-the-book" Starfleet crew and rebellious Maquis fugitives forced by circumstance to work together on Voyager. Eventually, though, they settle their differences, after which the overall tone becomes more reminiscent of The Original Series. The starship Voyager, isolated from its home, faces new cultures and dilemmas not possible in shows based in the Alpha Quadrant. Later seasons, however, brought an influx of characters and cultures from prior shows, the Borg, Q, the Ferengi, Romulans, Klingons, Cardassians and cast members of The Next Generation.
Enterprise (2001–05)
The Enterprise logo. The show originally did not include "Star Trek" in its name and logo, adding it later on in the show's run.
Science fiction veteran Scott Bakula played Captain Jonathan Archer, the lead character in Enterprise, a prequel to the original show.
Main article: Star Trek: Enterprise

Star Trek: Enterprise, originally titled Enterprise, is a prequel to the original Star Trek series. It aired from September 26, 2001 to May 13, 2005.[65] Enterprise takes place in the 2150s, some 90 years after the events of Zefram Cochrane's first warp flight and about a decade before the founding of the Federation. The show centers on the voyages of Earth's first warp-five capable starship, the Enterprise, commanded by Captain Jonathan Archer (played by Scott Bakula), and the Vulcan Sub-Commander T'Pol (played by Jolene Blalock).

During the show's first two seasons, Enterprise featured self-contained episodes, like The Original Series, The Next Generation and Voyager. The third season consisted of one arc, "Xindi mission", which had a darker tone and serialized nature similar to that of Deep Space 9. Season 4 consisted of several two to three episode mini-arcs. The final season showed the origins of elements seen in earlier series, and it rectified and resolved some core continuity problems between the various Star Trek series. Ratings for Enterprise started strong but declined rapidly. Although critics received the fourth season well, both fans and the cast reviled the series finale, partly because of the episode's focus on the guest appearance of members of The Next Generation cast.[66] The cancellation of Enterprise ended an 18-year run of back-to-back new Star Trek shows beginning with The Next Generation in 1987.
Untitled series (2017–)
Main article: Untitled 2017 Star Trek TV series

On November 2, 2015, it was announced that a new Star Trek TV series is in development by Alex Kurtzman and CBS. The new series will premiere on CBS All Access in January 2017.[67][68]
Feature films
Main article: Star Trek (film series)

Paramount Pictures has produced twelve Star Trek feature films, the most recent being released in May 2013.[69] The first six films continue the adventures of the cast of The Original Series; the seventh film, Generations was designed as a transition from that cast to The Next Generation television series; the next three films, 8–10, focused completely on the Next Generation cast.[Note 8] The eleventh and twelfth films take place in an alternate timeline from the rest of the franchise set with a new cast playing the original series characters, and with Leonard Nimoy as an elderly Spock providing a physical link to the original timeline.
Title U.S. release date Director
The Original Series
Star Trek: The Motion Picture December 7, 1979 Robert Wise
Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan June 4, 1982 Nicholas Meyer
Star Trek III: The Search for Spock June 1, 1984 Leonard Nimoy
Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home November 26, 1986
Star Trek V: The Final Frontier June 9, 1989 William Shatner
Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country December 6, 1991 Nicholas Meyer
The Next Generation[Note 9]
Star Trek Generations November 18, 1994 David Carson
Star Trek: First Contact November 22, 1996 Jonathan Frakes
Star Trek: Insurrection December 11, 1998
Star Trek: Nemesis December 13, 2002 Stuart Baird
Reboot Series[Note 3]
Star Trek May 8, 2009[Note 10] J. J. Abrams
Star Trek Into Darkness May 16, 2013[Note 11]
Star Trek Beyond July 22, 2016[45] Justin Lin[45]
Merchandise
Main article: Star Trek spin-off fiction

Many licensed products are based on the Star Trek franchise. Merchandising is very lucrative for both studio and actors; by 1986 Nimoy had earned more than $500,000 from royalties.[70] Products include novels, comic books, video games, and other materials, which are generally considered non-canon.
Books
Main article: List of Star Trek novels

Since 1967, hundreds of original novels, short stories, and television and movie adaptations have been published. The first original Star Trek novel was Mission to Horatius by Mack Reynolds, which was published in hardcover by Whitman Books in 1968.

The first publisher of Star Trek fiction aimed at adult readers was Bantam Books. In 1970, James Blish wrote the first original Star Trek novel published by Bantam, Spock Must Die!. Pocket Books is the publisher of Star Trek novels.

Prolific Star Trek novelists include Peter David, Diane Carey, Keith R. A. DeCandido, J. M. Dillard, Diane Duane, Michael Jan Friedman, and Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens. Several actors and writers from the television series have also written books: William Shatner, and John de Lancie, Andrew J. Robinson, J. G. Hertzler, and Armin Shimerman have written or co-written books featuring their respective characters. Voyager producer Jeri Taylor wrote two novels featuring back story for Voyager characters, and screen authors David Gerrold, D. C. Fontana, and Melinda Snodgrass have penned books, as well.

A scholarly book published by Springer Science+Business Media in 2014 discusses the actualization of Star Trek's holodeck in the future by making extensive use of artificial intelligence and cyborgs.[71]
Comics
Main article: Star Trek (comics)

Star Trek-based comics have been almost continuously published since 1967. They have been offered by several companies, including Marvel, DC, Malibu, Wildstorm, and Gold Key. Tokyopop is publishing an anthology of Next Generation-based stories presented in the style of Japanese manga.[72] As of 2006, IDW Publishing secured publishing rights to Star Trek comics[73] and published a prequel to the 2009 film, Star Trek: Countdown. In 2012, they published Volume I of Star Trek – The Newspaper Strip featuring the work of Thomas Warkentin.[74]
Games
Main article: History of Star Trek games

The Star Trek franchise has numerous games in many formats. Beginning in 1967 with a board game based on the original series and continuing through today with online and DVD games, Star Trek games continue to be popular among fans.

Video games of the series include Star Trek: Legacy and Star Trek: Conquest. An MMORPG based on Star Trek called Star Trek Online was developed by Cryptic Studios and published by Perfect World. It is set in the TNG universe about 30 years after the events of Star Trek: Nemesis.[75] The most recent video game, set in the new timeline debuted in J. J. Abrams's film, was titled Star Trek.

On June 8, 2010, Wiz Kids Games, which is owned by NECA, announced that they are developing a Star Trek collectible miniatures game using the HeroClix game system.[76]
Magazines

Star Trek has led directly or indirectly to the creation of a number of magazines which focus either on science fiction or specifically on Star Trek. Starlog was a magazine which was founded in the 1970s. Initially, its focus was on Star Trek actors, but then it began to expand its scope.

In 2013, Star Trek Magazine was a significant publication from the U.K. which was sold at newsstands and also via subscription. Other magazines through the years included professional magazines as well as magazines produced by fans, referred to as "fanzines". Star Trek: The Magazine was a magazine published in the U.S. which ceased publication in 2003.
Cultural impact
Main article: Cultural influence of Star Trek
Prototype space shuttle Enterprise named after the fictional starship with Star Trek television cast members and creator Gene Roddenberry.

The Star Trek media franchise is a multibillion-dollar industry, owned by CBS.[77] Gene Roddenberry sold Star Trek to NBC as a classic adventure drama; he pitched the show as "Wagon Train to the Stars" and as Horatio Hornblower in Space.[12] The opening line, "to boldly go where no man has gone before," was taken almost verbatim from a U.S. White House booklet on space produced after the Sputnik flight in 1957.[78] The central trio of Kirk, Spock, and McCoy was modeled on classical mythological storytelling.[12]

Star Trek and its spin-offs have proven highly popular in syndication and are shown on TV stations worldwide.[79] The show's cultural impact goes far beyond its longevity and profitability. Star Trek conventions have become popular among its fans, who call themselves "trekkies" or "trekkers". An entire subculture has grown up around the show[80] which was documented in the film Trekkies. Star Trek was the highest-ranked cult show by TV Guide.[81] The franchise has also garnered many comparisons of the Star Wars franchise being rivals in the science fiction genre with many fans and scholars.[82][83][84]

The Star Trek franchise inspired some designers of technologies, the Palm PDA and the handheld mobile phone.[85][86] Michael Jones, Chief technologist of Google Earth, has cited the tricorder's mapping capability as one inspiration in the development of Keyhole/Google Earth.[87] The Tricorder X Prize, a contest to build a medical tricorder device was announced in 2012. Ten finalists have been selected in 2014, and the winner will be selected in January 2016. Star Trek also brought teleportation to popular attention with its depiction of "matter-energy transport", with the famously misquoted phrase "Beam me up, Scotty" entering the vernacular.[88] The Star Trek replicator is credited in the scientific literature with inspiring the field of diatom nanotechnology.[89] In 1976, following a letter-writing campaign, NASA named its prototype space shuttle Enterprise, after the fictional starship.[90] Later, the introductory sequence to Star Trek: Enterprise included footage of this shuttle which, along with images of a naval sailing vessel called the Enterprise, depicted the advancement of human transportation technology.

Beyond Star Trek's fictional innovations, its contributions to TV history included a multicultural and multiracial cast. While more common in subsequent years, in the 1960s it was controversial to feature an Enterprise crew that included a Japanese helmsman, a Russian navigator, a black female communications officer, and a Vulcan-Human first officer. Captain Kirk's and Lt. Uhura's kiss, in the episode "Plato's Stepchildren", was also daring, and is often mis-cited as being American television's first scripted, interracial kiss, even though several other interracial kisses predated this one.[91]
Parodies

Early TV comedy sketch parodies of Star Trek included a famous sketch on Saturday Night Live titled "The Last Voyage of the Starship Enterprise", with John Belushi as Kirk, Chevy Chase as Spock and Dan Aykroyd as McCoy.[92] In the 1980s, Saturday Night Live did a sketch with William Shatner reprising his Captain Kirk role in The Restaurant Enterprise, preceded by a sketch in which he played himself at a Trek convention angrily telling fans to "Get a Life", a phrase that has become part of Trek folklore.[93] In Living Color continued the tradition in a sketch where Captain Kirk is played by a fellow Canadian Jim Carrey.[94]

A feature-length film that indirectly parodies Star Trek is Galaxy Quest. This film is based on the premise that aliens monitoring the broadcast of an Earth-based TV series called Galaxy Quest, modeled heavily on Star Trek, believe that what they are seeing is real.[95] Many Star Trek actors have been quoted saying that Galaxy Quest was a brilliant parody.[96][97]

Star Trek has been blended with Gilbert and Sullivan at least twice. The North Toronto Players presented a Star Trek adaptation of Gilbert & Sullivan titled H.M.S. Starship Pinafore: The Next Generation in 1991 and an adaptation by Jon Mullich of Gilbert & Sullivan's H.M.S. Pinafore that sets the operetta in the world of Star Trek has played in Los Angeles and was attended by series luminaries Nichelle Nichols,[citation needed] D.C. Fontana and David Gerrold.[98] A similar blend of Gilbert and Sullivan and Star Trek was presented as a benefit concert in San Francisco by the Lamplighters in 2009. The show was titled Star Drek: The Generation After That. It presented an original story with Gilbert and Sullivan melodies.[99]

Both The Simpsons and Futurama television series and others have had many individual episodes parodying Star Trek or with Trek allusions.[100] An entire series of films and novels from Finland titled Star Wreck also parodies Star Trek.[citation needed]

Star Trek has been parodied in several non-English movies, including the German Traumschiff Surprise - Periode 1 which features a gay version of The Original Series bridge crew and a Turkish film that spoofs that same series' episode "The Man Trap" in one of the series of films based on the character Turist Ömer.[citation needed]
Notable fan fiction
Main article: Star Trek fan productions

Although Star Trek has been off the air since 2005, CBS and Paramount pictures have allowed fan-produced shows to be created. While not officially part of the Star Trek universe, several veteran Star Trek actors, actresses, and writers have contributed their talents to many of these productions. While none of these films have been created for profit, several fan productions Star Trek: Renegades have turned to crowdfunding from sites, such as Kickstarter to help with production costs.[101]

Two series set during the TOS time period are Star Trek Continues and the Hugo award nominated Star Trek: Phase II. Another series, Star Trek: Hidden Frontier, takes place on the Briar Patch, a region of space introduced in Star Trek Insurrection. It has had over 50 episodes produced, and has two spin-off series, Star Trek: Odyssey and Star Trek: The Helena Chronicles. Several standalone fan films have been created including Star Trek: Of Gods and Men. Future fan films include Star Trek: Axanar.[102] Audio only fan productions includes Star Trek: The Continuing Mission. Several fan film parodies have also been created.
Awards and honors

Of the various science fiction awards for drama, only the Hugo Award dates back as far as the original series.[Note 12] In 1968, all five nominees for a Hugo Award were individual episodes of Star Trek, as were three of the five nominees in 1967.[49][Note 13] The only Star Trek series not even to get a Hugo nomination are the animated series and Voyager, though only the original series and Next Generation ever won the award. No Star Trek featured film has ever won a Hugo, though a few were nominated. In 2008, the fan made episode of Star Trek: New Voyages entitled "World Enough and Time" was nominated for the Hugo for Best Short Drama.[103]

The two Star Trek series to win multiple Saturn awards during their run were The Next Generation (twice winning for best television series) and Voyager (twice winning for best actress – Kate Mulgrew and Jeri Ryan).[Note 14] The original series retroactively won a Saturn Award for best DVD release. Several Star Trek films have won Saturns including categories best actor, actress, director, costume design, and special effects. However, Star Trek has never won a Saturn for best make-up.[104]

As for non science fiction specific awards, the Star Trek series has won 31 Emmy Awards.[105] The eleventh Star Trek film won the 2009 Academy Award for Best Makeup, the franchise's first Academy Award.[106]
Corporate ownership

At Star Trek's creation, Norway Productions, Roddenberry's production company, shared ownership with Desilu Productions and, after Gulf+Western acquired Desilu in 1967, with Paramount Pictures, the conglomerate's film studio. Paramount did not want to own the unsuccessful show; net profit was to be shared between Norway, Desilu/Paramount, Shatner, and NBC but Star Trek lost money, and the studio did not expect to syndicate it. In 1970 Paramount offered to sell all rights to Star Trek to Roddenberry, but he could not afford the $150,000 ($914,000 in 2007) price.[16]

In 1989, Gulf+Western renamed itself as Paramount Communications, and in 1994 merged with Viacom.[16] In 2005, Viacom divided into CBS Corporation, whose CBS Television Studios subsidiary retained the Star Trek brand, and Viacom, whose Paramount Pictures subsidiary retained the Star Trek film library and rights to make additional films, along with video distribution rights to the TV series on behalf of CBS.[107][16]
See also

Science fiction fandom
Timeline of science fiction

Sf-userbox.pngScience Fiction portal Delta-shield.svgStar Trek portal

Notes

For a more detailed history of the ownership of the franchise, see the corporate ownership section.
See The Animated Series section for more details.
Leonard Nimoy of the original series plays a significant role in the 2009 film, Star Trek and has a cameo in Star Trek Into Darkness
Members of the human species are occasionally called "Terrans" in Star Trek, although usage has been inconsistent.
Roddenberry did, however, co-author two scripts for the third season.
This episode count includes the animated series, and the original pilot, "The Cage". Two part episodes that were not originally aired at the same time are considered two separate episodes. Ten feature length episodes were originally aired as two-hour presentations and are sometimes considered single episodes, however in this count they too are seen as two individual episodes. The Star Trek wiki Memory Alpha differs from the count listed because it includes the feature films in its total and it uses the method that counts feature length episodes as single episodes. This makes that wiki's total release count 728.
Originally titled Star Trek, it has in recent years become known as Star Trek: The Original Series or as "Classic Star Trek"—retronyms that distinguish it from its sequels and the franchise as a whole.
Film titles of the North American and UK releases of the films no longer contained the number of the film following the sixth film (the sixth was Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country but the seventh was Star Trek: Generations). However, European releases continued using numbers in the film titles until Nemesis.
Several characters from the original series have cameos in Star Trek: Generations. William Shatner plays a major role in that film. A few Star Trek: Voyager characters play cameos in First Contact and Nemesis
While the official release date of the eleventh Star Trek was May 8, 2009, the film premiered internationally in Buda, Texas on April 6, 2009
While the official release date of Star Trek Into Darkness was May 16, 2013, the film premiered internationally in Sydney, Australia on April 23, 2013
Although the Hugo Award is mainly given for print-media science fiction, its "best drama" award is usually given to film or television presentations. The Hugo does not give out awards for best actor, director, or other aspects of film production. Before 2002, films and television shows competed for the same Hugo, before the split of the drama award into short drama and long drama.
The other two films nominated for the Hugo award in 1967 were the films Fahrenheit 451 and Fantastic Voyage

The science fiction Saturn Awards did not exist during broadcasting of the original series. Unlike the Hugo, the Saturn Award gives out prizes for best actor, special effects and music, and also unlike the Hugo (until 2002) movies and television shows have never competed against each other for Saturns.

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PostPosted: Fri May 06, 2016 6:35 pm Reply with quoteBack to top

Aside from those more obvious considerations touching Moby Dick, which could not but occasionally awaken in any man's soul some alarm, there was another thought, or rather vague, nameless horror concerning him, which at times by its intensity completely overpowered all the rest; and yet so mystical and well nigh ineffable was it, that I almost despair of putting it in a comprehensible form. It was the whiteness of the whale that above all things appalled me. But how can I hope to explain myself here; and yet, in some dim, random way, explain myself I must, else all these chapters might be naught.
The Book of Psalms

Book I


Psalm 1

Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the wicked,
Nor standeth in the way of sinners,
Nor sitteth in the seat of scoffers:
But his delight is in the law of Jehovah;
And on his law doth he meditate day and night.
And he shall be like a tree planted by the streams of water,
That bringeth forth its fruit in its season,
Whose leaf also doth not wither;
And whatsoever he doeth shall prosper.
The wicked are not so,
But are like the chaff which the wind driveth away.
Therefore the wicked shall not stand in the judgment,
Nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous.
For Jehovah knoweth the way of the righteous;
But the way of the wicked shall perish.




Psalm 2

Why do the nations rage,
And the peoples meditate a vain thing?
The kings of the earth set themselves,
And the rulers take counsel together,
Against Jehovah, and against his anointed, [saying],
Let us break their bonds asunder,
And cast away their cords from us.
He that sitteth in the heavens will laugh:
The Lord will have them in derision.
Then will he speak unto them in his wrath,
And vex them in his sore displeasure:
Yet I have set my king
Upon my holy hill of Zion.
I will tell of the decree:
Jehovah said unto me, Thou art my son;
This day have I begotten thee.
Ask of me, and I will give [thee] the nations for thine
inheritance,
And the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.
Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron;
Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.

Now therefore be wise, O ye kings:
Be instructed, ye judges of the earth.
Serve Jehovah with fear,
And rejoice with trembling.
Kiss the son, lest he be angry, and ye perish in the way,
For his wrath will soon be kindled.
Blessed are all they that take refuge in him.




Psalm 3

A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son.


Jehovah, how are mine adversaries increased!
Many are they that rise up against me.
Many there are that say of my soul,
There is no help for him in God.

Selah
But thou, O Jehovah, art a shield about me;
My glory and the lifter up of my head.
I cry unto Jehovah with my voice,
And he answereth me out of his holy hill.

Selah
I laid me down and slept;
I awaked; for Jehovah sustaineth me.
I will not be afraid of ten thousands of the people
That have set themselves against me round about.
Arise, O Jehovah; save me, O my God:
For thou hast smitten all mine enemies upon the cheek bone;
Thou hast broken the teeth of the wicked.
Salvation belongeth unto Jehovah:
Thy blessing be upon thy people.

Selah




Psalm 4

For the Chief Musician; on stringed instruments. A Psalm of David.


Answer me when I call, O God of my righteousness;
Thou hast set me at large [when I was] in distress:
Have mercy upon me, and hear my prayer.
O ye sons of men, how long shall my glory be turned into dishonor?
[How long] will ye love vanity, and seek after falsehood?

Selah
But know that Jehovah hath set apart for himself him that is
godly:
Jehovah will hear when I call unto him.
Stand in awe, and sin not:
Commune with your own heart upon your bed, and be still.

Selah
Offer the sacrifices of righteousness,
And put your trust in Jehovah.
Many there are that say, Who will show us [any] good?
Jehovah, lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon us.
Thou hast put gladness in my heart,
More than [they have] when their grain and their new wine are increased.
In peace will I both lay me down and sleep;
For thou, Jehovah, alone makest me dwell in safety.




Psalm 5

For the Chief Musician; with the Nehiloth. A Psalm of David.


Give ear to my words, O Jehovah,
Consider my meditation.
Hearken unto the voice of my cry, my King, and my God;
For unto thee do I pray.
O Jehovah, in the morning shalt thou hear my voice;
In the morning will I order [my prayer] unto thee, and will keep watch.
For thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness:
Evil shall not sojourn with thee.
The arrogant shall not stand in thy sight:
Thou hatest all workers of iniquity.
Thou wilt destroy them that speak lies:
Jehovah abhorreth the blood-thirsty and deceitful man.
But as for me, in the abundance of thy lovingkindness will I come
into thy house:
In thy fear will I worship toward thy holy temple.
Lead me, O Jehovah, in thy righteousness because of mine enemies;
Make thy way straight before my face.
For there is no faithfulness in their mouth;
Their inward part is very wickedness;
Their throat is an open sepulchre;
They flatter with their tongue.
Hold them guilty, O God;
Let them fall by their own counsels;
Thrust them out in the multitude of their transgressions;
For they have rebelled against thee.
But let all those that take refuge in thee rejoice,
Let them ever shout for joy, because thou defendest them:
Let them also that love thy name be joyful in thee.
For thou wilt bless the righteous;
O Jehovah, thou wilt compass him with favor as with a shield.




Psalm 6

For the Chief Musician; on stringed instruments, set to the Sheminith.
A Psalm of David.


O Jehovah, rebuke me not in thine anger,
Neither chasten me in thy hot displeasure.
Have mercy upon me, O Jehovah; for I am withered away:
O Jehovah, heal me; for my bones are troubled.
My soul also is sore troubled:
And thou, O Jehovah, how long?
Return, O Jehovah, deliver my soul:
Save me for thy lovingkindness' sake.
For in death there is no remembrance of thee:
In Sheol who shall give thee thanks?
I am weary with my groaning;
Every night make I my bed to swim;
I water my couch with my tears.
Mine eye wasteth away because of grief;
It waxeth old because of all mine adversaries.
Depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity;
For Jehovah hath heard the voice of my weeping.
Jehovah hath heard my supplication;
Jehovah will receive my prayer.
All mine enemies shall be put to shame and sore troubled:
They shall turn back, they shall be put to shame suddenly.




Psalm 7

Shiggaion of David, which he sang unto Jehova, concerning the words of
Cush a Benjamite.


O Jehovah my God, in thee do I take refuge:
Save me from all them that pursue me, and deliver me,
Lest they tear my soul like a lion,
Rending it in pieces, while there is none to deliver.
O Jehovah my God, if I have done this;
If there be iniquity in my hands;
If I have rewarded evil unto him that was at peace with me;
(Yea, I have delivered him that without cause was mine adversary;)
Let the enemy pursue my soul, and overtake it;
Yea, let him tread my life down to the earth,
And lay my glory in the dust.

Selah
Arise, O Jehovah, in thine anger;
Lift up thyself against the rage of mine adversaries,
And awake for me; thou hast commanded judgment.
And let the congregation of the peoples compass thee about;
And over them return thou on high.
Jehovah ministereth judgment to the peoples:
Judge me, O Jehovah, according to my righteousness, and to mine
integrity that is in me.
O let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end, but establish
thou the righteous:
For the righteous God trieth the minds and hearts.
My shield is with God,
Who saveth the upright in heart.
God is a righteous judge,
Yea, a God that hath indignation every day.
If a man turn not, he will whet his sword;
He hath bent his bow, and made it ready.
He hath also prepared for him the instruments of death;
He maketh his arrows fiery [shafts].
Behold, he travaileth with iniquity;
Yea, he hath conceived mischief, and brought forth falsehood.
He hath made a pit, and digged it,
And is fallen into the ditch which he made.
His mischief shall return upon his own head,
And his violence shall come down upon his own pate.
I will give thanks unto Jehovah according to his righteousness,
And will sing praise to the name of Jehovah Most High.




Psalm 8

For the Chief Musician; set to the Gittith. A Psalm of David.


O Jehovah, our Lord, How excellent is thy name in all the earth,
Who hast set thy glory upon the heavens!
Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou established
strength,
Because of thine adversaries,
That thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger.
When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers,
The moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained;
What is man, that thou art mindful of him?
And the son of man, that thou visitest him?
For thou hast made him but little lower than God,
And crownest him with glory and honor.
Thou makest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands;
Thou hast put all things under his feet:
All sheep and oxen,
Yea, and the beasts of the field,
The birds of the heavens, and the fish of the sea,
Whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas.
O Jehovah, our Lord,
How excellent is thy name in all the earth!




Psalm 9

For the Chief Musician; set to Muthlabben. A Psalm of David.


I will give thanks unto Jehovah with my whole heart;
I will show forth all thy marvellous works.
I will be glad and exult in thee;
I will sing praise to thy name, O thou Most High.
When mine enemies turn back,
They stumble and perish at thy presence.
For thou hast maintained my right and my cause;
Thou sittest in the throne judging righteously.
Thou hast rebuked the nations, thou hast destroyed the wicked;
Thou hast blotted out their name for ever and ever.
The enemy are come to an end, they are desolate for ever;
And the cities which thou hast overthrown,
The very remembrance of them is perished.
But Jehovah sitteth [as king] for ever:
He hath prepared his throne for judgment;
And he will judge the world in righteousness,
He will minister judgment to the peoples in uprightness.
Jehovah also will be a high tower for the oppressed,
A high tower in times of trouble;
And they that know thy name will put their trust in thee;
For thou, Jehovah, hast not forsaken them that seek thee.
Sing praises to Jehovah, who dwelleth in Zion:
Declare among the people his doings.
For he that maketh inquisition for blood remembereth them;
He forgetteth not the cry of the poor.
Have mercy upon me, O Jehovah;
Behold my affliction [which I suffer] of them that hate me,
Thou that liftest me up from the gates of death;
That I may show forth all thy praise.
In the gates of the daughter of Zion
I will rejoice in thy salvation.
The nations are sunk down in the pit that they made:
In the net which they hid is their own foot taken.
Jehovah hath made himself known, he hath executed judgment:
The wicked is snared in the work of his own hands.

Higgaion. Selah
The wicked shall be turned back unto Sheol,
Even all the nations that forget God.
For the needy shall not alway be forgotten,
Nor the expectation of the poor perish for ever.
Arise, O Jehovah; let not man prevail:
Let the nations be judged in thy sight.
Put them in fear, O Jehovah:
Let the nations know themselves to be but men.

Selah




Psalm 10


Why standest thou afar off, O Jehovah?
Why hidest thou thyself in times of trouble?
In the pride of the wicked the poor is hotly pursued;
Let them be taken in the devices that they have conceived.
For the wicked boasteth of his heart's desire,
And the covetous renounceth, [yea], contemneth Jehovah.
The wicked, in the pride of his countenance, [saith], He will
not require [it].
All his thoughts are, There is no God.
His ways are firm at all times;
Thy judgments are far above out of his sight:
As for all his adversaries, he puffeth at them.
He saith in his heart, I shall not be moved;
To all generations I shall not be in adversity.
His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and oppression:
Under his tongue is mischief and iniquity.
He sitteth in the lurking-places of the villages;
In the secret places doth he murder the innocent;
His eyes are privily set against the helpless.
He lurketh in secret as a lion in his covert;
He lieth in wait to catch the poor:
He doth catch the poor, when he draweth him in his net.
He croucheth, he boweth down,
And the helpless fall by his strong ones.
He saith in his heart, God hath forgotten;
He hideth his face; he will never see it.
Arise, O Jehovah; O God, lift up thy hand:
Forget not the poor.
Wherefore doth the wicked contemn God,
And say in his heart, Thou wilt not require [it]?
Thou hast seen [it]; for thou beholdest mischief and spite, to
requite it with thy hand:
The helpless committeth [himself] unto thee;
Thou hast been the helper of the fatherless.
Break thou the arm of the wicked;
And as for the evil man, seek out his wickedness till thou find none.
Jehovah is King for ever and ever:
The nations are perished out of his land.
Jehovah, thou hast heard the desire of the meek:
Thou wilt prepare their heart, thou wilt cause thine ear to hear;
To judge the fatherless and the oppressed,
That man who is of the earth may be terrible no more.




Psalm 11

For the Chief Musician. [A Psalm] of David.


In Jehovah do I take refuge:
How say ye to my soul,
Flee [as] a bird to your mountain;
For, lo, the wicked bend the bow,
They make ready their arrow upon the string,
That they may shoot in darkness at the upright in heart;
If the foundations be destroyed,
What can the righteous do?
Jehovah is in his holy temple;
Jehovah, his throne is in heaven;
His eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men.
Jehovah trieth the righteous;
But the wicked and him that loveth violence his soul hateth.
Upon the wicked he will rain snares;
Fire and brimstone and burning wind shall be the portion of their cup.
For Jehovah is righteous; he loveth righteousness:
The upright shall behold his face.




Psalm 12

For the Chief Musician; set to the Sheminith. A Psalm of David.


Help, Jehovah; for the godly man ceaseth;
For the faithful fail from among the children of men.
They speak falsehood every one with his neighbor:
With flattering lip, and with a double heart, do they speak.
Jehovah will cut off all flattering lips,
The tongue that speaketh great things;
Who have said, With our tongue will we prevail;
Our lips are our own: who is lord over us?
Because of the oppression of the poor, because of the sighing of
the needy,
Now will I arise, saith Jehovah;
I will set him in the safety he panteth for.
The words of Jehovah are pure words;
As silver tried in a furnace on the earth,
Purified seven times.
Thou wilt keep them, O Jehovah,
Thou wilt preserve them from this generation for ever.
The wicked walk on every side,
When vileness is exalted among the sons of men.




Psalm 13

For the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.


How long, O Jehovah? wilt thou forget me for ever?
How long wilt thou hide thy face from me?
How long shall I take counsel in my soul,
Having sorrow in my heart all the day?
How long shall mine enemy be exalted over me?
Consider [and] answer me, O Jehovah my God:
Lighten mine eyes, lest I sleep the [sleep of] death;
Lest mine enemy say, I have prevailed against him;
[Lest] mine adversaries rejoice when I am moved.
But I have trusted in thy lovingkindness;
My heart shall rejoice in thy salvation.
I will sing unto Jehovah,
Because he hath dealt bountifully with me.




Psalm 14

For the Chief Musician. [A Psalm] of David.


The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God.
They are corrupt, they have done abominable works;
There is none that doeth good.
Jehovah looked down from heaven upon the children of men,
To see if there were any that did understand,
That did seek after God.
They are all gone aside; they are together become filthy;
There is none that doeth good, no, not one.
Have all the workers of iniquity no knowledge,
Who eat up my people [as] they eat bread,
And call not upon Jehovah?
There were they in great fear;
For God is in the generation of the righteous.
Ye put to shame the counsel of the poor,
Because Jehovah is his refuge.
Oh that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion!
When Jehovah bringeth back the captivity of his people,
Then shall Jacob rejoice, [and] Israel shall be glad.




Psalm 15

A Psalm of David.


Jehovah, who shall sojourn in thy tabernacle?
Who shall dwell in thy holy hill?
He that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness,
And speaketh truth in his heart;
He that slandereth not with his tongue,
Nor doeth evil to his friend,
Nor taketh up a reproach against his neighbor;
In whose eyes a reprobate is despised,
But who honoreth them that fear Jehovah;
He that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not;
He that putteth not out his money to interest,
Nor taketh reward against the innocent.
He that doeth these things shall never be moved.




Psalm 16

Michtam of David.


Preserve me, O God; for in thee do I take refuge.
[O my soul], thou hast said unto Jehovah, Thou art my Lord:
I have no good beyond thee.
As for the saints that are in the earth,
They are the excellent in whom is all my delight.
Their sorrows shall be multiplied that give gifts for another
[god]:
Their drink-offerings of blood will I not offer,
Nor take their names upon my lips.
Jehovah is the portion of mine inheritance and of my cup:
Thou maintainest my lot.
The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places;
Yea, I have a goodly heritage.
I will bless Jehovah, who hath given me counsel;
Yea, my heart instructeth me in the night seasons.
I have set Jehovah always before me:
Because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved.
Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth;
My flesh also shall dwell in safety.
For thou wilt not leave my soul to Sheol;
Neither wilt thou suffer thy holy one to see corruption.
Thou wilt show me the path of life:
In thy presence is fulness of joy;
In thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore.




Psalm 17

A Prayer of David.


Hear the right, O Jehovah, attend unto my cry;
Give ear unto my prayer, that goeth not out of feigned lips.
Let my sentence come forth from thy presence;
Let thine eyes look upon equity.
Thou hast proved my heart; thou hast visited me in the night;
Thou hast tried me, and findest nothing;
I am purposed that my mouth shall not transgress.
As for the works of men, by the word of thy lips
I have kept me from the ways of the violent.
My steps have held fast to thy paths,
My feet have not slipped.
I have called upon thee, for thou wilt answer me, O God:
Incline thine ear unto me, [and] hear my speech.
Show thy marvellous lovingkindness,
O thou that savest by thy right hand them that take refuge [in thee
]From those that rise up [against them].
Keep me as the apple of the eye;
Hide me under the shadow of thy wings,
From the wicked that oppress me,
My deadly enemies, that compass me about.
They are inclosed in their own fat:
With their mouth they speak proudly.
They have now compassed us in our steps;
They set their eyes to cast [us] down to the earth.
He is like a lion that is greedy of his prey,
And as it were a young lion lurking in secret places.
Arise, O Jehovah,
Confront him, cast him down:
Deliver my soul from the wicked by thy sword;
From men by thy hand, O Jehovah,
From men of the world, whose portion is in [this] life,
And whose belly thou fillest with thy treasure:
They are satisfied with children,
And leave the rest of their substance to their babes.
As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness;
I shall be satisfied, when I awake, with [beholding] thy form.




Psalm 18

For the Chief Musician. [A Psalm] of David the servant of Jehovah, who
spake unto Jehovah the words of this song in the day that Jehovah
delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of
Saul: and he said,


I love thee, O Jehovah, my strength.
Jehovah is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer;
My God, my rock, in whom I will take refuge;
My shield, and the horn of my salvation, my high tower.
I will call upon Jehovah, who is worthy to be praised:
So shall I be saved from mine enemies.
The cords of death compassed me,
And the floods of ungodliness made me afraid.
The cords of Sheol were round about me;
The snares of death came upon me.
In my distress I called upon Jehovah,
And cried unto my God:
He heard my voice out of his temple,
And my cry before him came into his ears.
Then the earth shook and trembled;
The foundations also of the mountains quaked
And were shaken, because he was wroth.
There went up a smoke out of his nostrils,
And fire out of his mouth devoured:
Coals were kindled by it.
He bowed the heavens also, and came down;
And thick darkness was under his feet.
And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly;
Yea, he soared upon the wings of the wind.
He made darkness his hiding-place, his pavilion round about him,
Darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies.
At the brightness before him his thick clouds passed,
Hailstones and coals of fire.
Jehovah also thundered in the heavens,
And the Most High uttered his voice,
Hailstones and coals of fire.
And he sent out his arrows, and scattered them;
Yea, lightnings manifold, and discomfited them.
Then the channels of waters appeared,
And the foundations of the world were laid bare,
At thy rebuke, O Jehovah,
At the blast of the breath of thy nostrils.
He sent from on high, he took me;
He drew me out of many waters.
He delivered me from my strong enemy,
And from them that hated me; for they were too mighty for me.
They came upon me in the day of my calamity;
But Jehovah was my stay.
He brought me forth also into a large place;
He delivered me, because he delighted in me.
Jehovah hath rewarded me according to my righteousness;
According to the cleanness of my hands hath he recompensed me.
For I have kept the ways of Jehovah,
And have not wickedly departed from my God.
For all his ordinances were before me,
And I put not away his statutes from me.
I was also perfect with him,
And I kept myself from mine iniquity.
Therefore hath Jehovah recompensed me according to my
righteousness,
According to the cleanness of my hands in his eyesight.
With the merciful thou wilt show thyself merciful;
With the perfect man thou wilt show thyself perfect;
With the pure thou wilt show thyself pure;
And with the perverse thou wilt show thyself froward.
For thou wilt save the afflicted people;
But the haughty eyes thou wilt bring down.
For thou wilt light my lamp:
Jehovah my God will lighten my darkness.
For by thee I run upon a troop;
And by my God do I leap over a wall.
As for God, his way is perfect:
The word of Jehovah is tried;
He is a shield unto all them that take refuge in him.
For who is God, save Jehovah?
And who is a rock, besides our God,
The God that girdeth me with strength,
And maketh my way perfect?
He maketh my feet like hinds' [feet]:
And setteth me upon my high places.
He teacheth my hands to war;
So that mine arms do bend a bow of brass.
Thou hast also given me the shield of thy salvation;
And thy right hand hath holden me up,
And thy gentleness hath made me great.
Thou hast enlarged my steps under me,
And my feet have not slipped.
I will pursue mine enemies, and overtake them;
Neither will I turn again till they are consumed.
I will smite them through, so that they shall not be able to
rise:
They shall fall under my feet.
For thou hast girded me with strength unto the battle:
Thou hast subdued under me those that rose up against me.
Thou hast also made mine enemies turn their backs unto me,
That I might cut off them that hate me.
They cried, but there was none to save;
Even unto Jehovah, but he answered them not.
Then did I beat them small as the dust before the wind;
I did cast them out as the mire of the streets.
Thou hast delivered me from the strivings of the people;
Thou hast made me the head of the nations:
A people whom I have not known shall serve me.
As soon as they hear of me they shall obey me;
The foreigners shall submit themselves unto me.
The foreigners shall fade away,
And shall come trembling out of their close places.
Jehovah liveth; and blessed be my rock;
And exalted be the God of my salvation,
Even the God that executeth vengeance for me,
And subdueth peoples under me.
He rescueth me from mine enemies;
Yea, thou liftest me up above them that rise up against me;
Thou deliverest me from the violent man.
Therefore I will give thanks unto thee, O Jehovah, among the
nations,
And will sing praises unto thy name.
Great deliverance giveth he to his king,
And showeth lovingkindness to his anointed,
To David and to his seed, for evermore.




Psalm 19

For the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.


The heavens declare the glory of God;
And the firmament showeth his handiwork.
Day unto day uttereth speech,
And night unto night showeth knowledge.
There is no speech nor language;
Their voice is not heard.
Their line is gone out through all the earth,
And their words to the end of the world.
In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,
Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber,
And rejoiceth as a strong man to run his course.
His going forth is from the end of the heavens,
And his circuit unto the ends of it;
And there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.


The law of Jehovah is perfect, restoring the soul:
The testimony of Jehovah is sure, making wise the simple.
The precepts of Jehovah are right, rejoicing the heart:
The commandment of Jehovah is pure, enlightening the eyes.
The fear of Jehovah is clean, enduring for ever:
The ordinances of Jehovah are true, [and] righteous altogether.
More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold;
Sweeter also than honey and the droppings of the honeycomb.
Moreover by them is thy servant warned:
In keeping them there is great reward.
Who can discern [his] errors?
Clear thou me from hidden [faults].
Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous [sins];
Let them not have dominion over me:
Then shall I be upright,
And I shall be clear from great transgression.
Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart
Be acceptable in thy sight,
O Jehovah, my rock, and my redeemer.




Psalm 20

For the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.


Jehovah answer thee in the day of trouble;
The name of the God of Jacob set thee up on high;
Send thee help from the sanctuary,
And strengthen thee out of Zion;
Remember all thy offerings,
And accept thy burnt-sacrifice;

Selah
Grant thee thy heart's desire,
And fulfil all thy counsel.
We will triumph in thy salvation,
And in the name of our God we will set up our banners:
Jehovah fulfil all thy petitions.
Now know I that Jehovah saveth his anointed;
He will answer him from his holy heaven
With the saving strength of his right hand.
Some [trust] in chariots, and some in horses;
But we will make mention of the name of Jehovah our God.
They are bowed down and fallen;
But we are risen, and stand upright.
Save, Jehovah:
Let the King answer us when we call.




Psalm 21

For the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.


The king shall joy in thy strength, O Jehovah;
And in thy salvation how greatly shall he rejoice!
Thou hast given him his heart's desire,
And hast not withholden the request of his lips.

Selah
For thou meetest him with the blessings of goodness:
Thou settest a crown of fine gold on his head.
He asked life of thee, thou gavest it him,
Even length of days for ever and ever.
His glory is great in thy salvation:
Honor and majesty dost thou lay upon him.
For thou makest him most blessed for ever:
Thou makest him glad with joy in thy presence.
For the king trusteth in Jehovah;
And through the lovingkindness of the Most High he shall not be moved.
Thy hand will find out all thine enemies;
Thy right hand will find out those that hate thee.
Thou wilt make them as a fiery furnace in the time of thine
anger:
Jehovah will swallow them up in his wrath,
And the fire shall devour them.
Their fruit wilt thou destroy from the earth,
And their seed from among the children of men.
For they intended evil against thee;
They conceived a device which they are not able to perform.
For thou wilt make them turn their back;
Thou wilt make ready with thy bowstrings against their face.
Be thou exalted, O Jehovah, in thy strength:
So will we sing and praise thy power.




Psalm 22

For the Chief Musician; set to Aijaleth hash-Shahar. A Psalm of
David.


My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
[Why art thou so] far from helping me, [and from] the words of my
groaning?
O my God, I cry in the daytime, but thou answerest not;
And in the night season, and am not silent.
But thou art holy,
O thou that inhabitest the praises of Israel.
Our fathers trusted in thee:
They trusted, and thou didst deliver them.
They cried unto thee, and were delivered:
They trusted in thee, and were not put to shame.
But I am a worm, and no man;
A reproach of men, and despised of the people.
All they that see me laugh me to scorn:
They shoot out the lip, they shake the head, [saying],
Commit [thyself] unto Jehovah;
Let him deliver him:
Let him rescue him, seeing he delighteth in him.
But thou art he that took me out of the womb;
Thou didst make me trust [when I was] upon my mother's breasts.
I was cast upon thee from the womb;
Thou art my God since my mother bare me.
Be not far from me; for trouble is near;
For there is none to help.
Many bulls have compassed me;
Strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round.
They gape upon me with their mouth,
[As] a ravening and a roaring lion.
I am poured out like water,
And all my bones are out of joint:
My heart is like wax;
It is melted within me.
My strength is dried up like a potsherd;
And my tongue cleaveth to my jaws;
And thou hast brought me into the dust of death.
For dogs have compassed me:
A company of evil-doers have inclosed me;
They pierced my hands and my feet.
I may count all my bones;
They look and stare upon me.
They part my garments among them,
And upon my vesture do they cast lots.
But be not thou far off, O Jehovah:
O thou my succor, haste thee to help me.
Deliver my soul from the sword,
My darling from the power of the dog.
Save me from the lion's mouth;
Yea, from the horns of the wild-oxen thou hast answered me.


I will declare thy name unto my brethren:
In the midst of the assembly will I praise thee.
Ye that fear Jehovah, praise him;
All ye the seed of Jacob, glorify him;
And stand in awe of him, all ye the seed of Israel.
For he hath not despised nor abhorred the affliction of the
afflicted;
Neither hath he hid his face from him;
But when he cried unto him, he heard.
Of thee cometh my praise in the great assembly:
I will pay my vows before them that fear him.
The meek shall eat and be satisfied;
They shall praise Jehovah that seek after him:
Let your heart live for ever.
All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn unto Jehovah;
And all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before thee.
For the kingdom is Jehovah's;
And he is the ruler over the nations.
All the fat ones of the earth shall eat and worship:
All they that go down to the dust shall bow before him,
Even he that cannot keep his soul alive.
A seed shall serve him;
It shall be told of the Lord unto the [next] generation.
They shall come and shall declare his righteousness
Unto a people that shall be born, that he hath done it.




Psalm 23

A Psalm of David.


Jehovah is my shepherd; I shall not want.
He maketh me to lie down in green pastures;
He leadeth me beside still waters.
He restoreth my soul:
He guideth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake.
Yea, thou I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,
I will fear no evil; for thou art with me;
Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me.
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies:
Thou hast anointed my head with oil;
My cup runneth over.
Surely goodness and lovingkindness shall follow me all the days
of my life;
And I shall dwell in the house of Jehovah for ever.




Psalm 24

A Psalm of David.


The earth is Jehovah's, and the fulness thereof;
The world, and they that dwell therein.
For he hath founded it upon the seas,
And established it upon the floods.
Who shall ascend into the hill of Jehovah?
And who shall stand in his holy place?
He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart;
Who hath not lifted up his soul unto falsehood,
And hath not sworn deceitfully.
He shall receive a blessing from Jehovah,
And righteousness from the God of his salvation.
This is the generation of them that seek after him,
That seek thy face, [even] Jacob.

Selah

Lift up your heads, O ye gates;
And be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors:
And the King of glory will come in.
Who is the King of glory?
Jehovah strong and mighty,
Jehovah mighty in battle.
Lift up your heads, O ye gates;
Yea, lift them up, ye everlasting doors:
And the King of glory will come in.
Who is this King of glory?
Jehovah of hosts,
He is the King of glory.

Selah




Psalm 25

[A Psalm] of David.


Unto thee, O Jehovah, do I lift up my soul.
O my God, in thee have I trusted,
Let me not be put to shame;
Let not mine enemies triumph over me.
Yea, none that wait for thee shall be put to shame:
They shall be put to shame that deal treacherously without cause.
Show me thy ways, O Jehovah;
Teach me thy paths.
Guide me in thy truth, and teach me;
For thou art the God of my salvation;
For thee do I wait all the day.
Remember, O Jehovah, thy tender mercies and thy lovingkindness;
For they have been ever of old.
Remember not the sins of my youth, nor my transgressions:
According to thy lovingkindness remember thou me,
For thy goodness' sake, O Jehovah.
Good and upright is Jehovah:
Therefore will he instruct sinners in the way.
The meek will he guide in justice;
And the meek will he teach his way.
All the paths of Jehovah are lovingkindness and truth
Unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies.
For thy name's sake, O Jehovah,
Pardon mine iniquity, for it is great.
What man is he that feareth Jehovah?
Him shall he instruct in the way that he shall choose.
His soul shall dwell at ease;
And his seed shall inherit the land.
The friendship of Jehovah is with them that fear him;
And he will show them his covenant.
Mine eyes are ever toward Jehovah;
For he will pluck my feet out of the net.
Turn thee unto me, and have mercy upon me;
For I am desolate and afflicted.
The troubles of my heart are enlarged:
Oh bring thou me out of my distresses.
Consider mine affliction and my travail;
And forgive all my sins.
Consider mine enemies, for they are many;
And they hate me with cruel hatred.
Oh keep my soul, and deliver me:
Let me not be put to shame, for I take refuge in thee.
Let integrity and uprightness preserve me,
For I wait for thee.
Redeem Israel, O God,
Out all of his troubles.




Psalm 26

[A Psalm] of David.


Judge me, O Jehovah, for I have walked in mine integrity:
I have trusted also in Jehovah without wavering.
Examine me, O Jehovah, and prove me;
Try my heart and my mind.
For thy lovingkindness is before mine eyes;
And I have walked in thy truth.
I have not sat with men of falsehood;
Neither will I go in with dissemblers.
I hate the assembly of evil-doers,
And will not sit with the wicked.
I will wash my hands in innocency:
So will I compass thine altar, O Jehovah;
That I may make the voice of thanksgiving to be heard,
And tell of all thy wondrous works.
Jehovah, I love the habitation of thy house,
And the place where thy glory dwelleth.
Gather not my soul with sinners,
Nor my life with men of blood;
In whose hands is wickedness,
And their right hand is full of bribes.
But as for me, I will walk in mine integrity:
Redeem me, and be merciful unto me.
My foot standeth in an even place:
In the congregations will I bless Jehovah.




Psalm 27

[A Psalm] of David.


Jehovah is my light and my salvation;
Whom shall I fear?
Jehovah is the strength of my life;
Of whom shall I be afraid?
When evil-doers came upon me to eat up my flesh,
[Even] mine adversaries and my foes, they stumbled and fell.
Though a host should encamp against me,
My heart shall not fear:
Though war should rise against me,
Even then will I be confident.
One thing have I asked of Jehovah, that will I seek after;
That I may dwell in the house of Jehovah all the days of my life,
To behold the beauty of Jehovah,
And to inquire in his temple.
For in the day of trouble he will keep me secretly in his
pavilion:
In the covert of his tabernacle will he hide me;
He will lift me up upon a rock.
And now shall my head be lifted up above mine enemies round
about me.
And I will offer in his tabernacle sacrifices of joy;
I will sing, yea, I will sing praises unto Jehovah.


Hear, O Jehovah, when I cry with my voice:
Have mercy also upon me, and answer me.
[When thou saidst], Seek ye my face;
My heart said unto thee,
Thy face, Jehovah, will I seek.
Hide not thy face from me;
Put not thy servant away in anger:
Thou hast been my help;
Cast me not off, neither forsake me, O God of my salvation.
When my father and my mother forsake me,
Then Jehovah will take me up.
Teach me thy way, O Jehovah;
And lead me in a plain path,
Because of mine enemies.
Deliver me not over unto the will of mine adversaries:
For false witnesses are risen up against me,
And such as breathe out cruelty.
[I had fainted], unless I had believed to see the goodness of
Jehovah
In the land of the living.
Wait for Jehovah:
Be strong, and let thy heart take courage;
Yea, wait thou for Jehovah.




Psalm 28

[A Psalm] of David.


Unto thee, O Jehovah, will I call:
My rock, be not thou deaf unto me;
Lest, if thou be silent unto me,
I become like them that go down into the pit.
Hear the voice of my supplications, when I cry unto thee,
When I lift up my hands toward thy holy oracle.
Draw me not away with the wicked,
And with the workers of iniquity;
That speak peace with their neighbors,
But mischief is in their hearts.
Give them according to their work, and according to the
wickedness of their doings:
Give them after the operation of their hands;
Render to them their desert.
Because they regard not the works of Jehovah,
Nor the operation of his hands,
He will break them down and not build them up.


Blessed be Jehovah,
Because he hath heard the voice of my supplications.
Jehovah is my strength and my shield;
My heart hath trusted in him, and I am helped:
Therefore my heart greatly rejoiceth;
And with my song will I praise him.
Jehovah is their strength,
And he is a stronghold of salvation to his anointed.
Save thy people, and bless thine inheritance:
Be their shepherd also, and bear them up for ever.




Psalm 29

A Psalm of David.


Ascribe unto Jehovah, O ye sons of the mighty,
Ascribe unto Jehovah glory and strength.
Ascribe unto Jehovah the glory due unto his name;
Worship Jehovah in holy array.

The voice of Jehovah is upon the waters:
The God of glory thundereth,
Even Jehovah upon many waters.
The voice of Jehovah is powerful;
The voice of Jehovah is full of majesty.
The voice of Jehovah breaketh the cedars;
Yea, Jehovah breaketh in pieces the cedars of Lebanon.
He maketh them also to skip like a calf;
Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild-ox.
The voice of Jehovah cleaveth the flames of fire.
The voice of Jehovah shaketh the wilderness;
Jehovah shaketh the wilderness of Kadesh.
The voice of Jehovah maketh the hinds to calve,
And strippeth the forests bare:
And in his temple everything saith, Glory.

Jehovah sat [as King] at the Flood;
Yea, Jehovah sitteth as King for ever.
Jehovah will give strength unto his people;
Jehovah will bless his people with peace.




Psalm 30

A Psalm; a Song at the Dedication of the House. [A Psalm] of David.


I will extol thee, O Jehovah; for thou hast raised me up,
And hast not made my foes to rejoice over me.
O Jehovah my God,
I cried unto thee, and thou hast healed me.
O Jehovah, thou hast brought up my soul from Sheol;
Thou hast kept me alive, that I should not go down to the pit.
Sing praise unto Jehovah, O ye saints of his,
And give thanks to his holy memorial [name].
For his anger is but for a moment;
His favor is for a life-time:
Weeping may tarry for the night,
But joy [cometh] in the morning.
As for me, I said in my prosperity,
I shall never be moved.
Thou, Jehovah, of thy favor hadst made my mountain to stand
strong:
Thou didst hide thy face; I was troubled.
I cried to thee, O Jehovah;
And unto Jehovah I made supplication:
What profit is there in my blood, when I go down to the pit?
Shall the dust praise thee? shall it declare thy truth?
Hear, O Jehovah, and have mercy upon me:
Jehovah, be thou my helper.
Thou hast turned for me my mourning into dancing;
Thou hast loosed my sackcloth, and girded me with gladness;
To the end that [my] glory may sing praise to thee, and not be
silent.
O Jehovah my God, I will give thanks unto thee for ever.




Psalm 31

For the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.


In thee, O Jehovah, do I take refuge;
Let me never be put to shame:
Deliver me in thy righteousness.
Bow down thine ear unto me; deliver me speedily:
Be thou to me a strong rock,
A house of defence to save me.
For thou art my rock and my fortress;
Therefore for thy name's sake lead me and guide me.
Pluck me out of the net that they have laid privily for me;
For thou art my stronghold.
Into thy hand I commend my spirit:
Thou hast redeemed me, O Jehovah, thou God of truth.
I hate them that regard lying vanities;
But I trust in Jehovah.
I will be glad and rejoice in thy lovingkindness;
For thou hast seen my affliction:
Thou hast known my soul in adversities;
And thou hast not shut me up into the hand of the enemy;
Thou hast set my feet in a large place.
Have mercy upon me, O Jehovah, for I am in distress:
Mine eye wasteth away with grief, [yea], my soul and my body.
For my life is spent with sorrow,
And my years with sighing:
My strength faileth because of mine iniquity,
And my bones are wasted away.
Because of all mine adversaries I am become a reproach,
Yea, unto my neighbors exceedingly,
And a fear to mine acquaintance:
They that did see me without fled from me.
I am forgotten as a dead man out of mind:
I am like a broken vessel.
For I have heard the defaming of many,
Terror on every side:
While they took counsel together against me,
They devised to take away my life.
But I trusted in thee, O Jehovah:
I said, Thou art my God.
My times are in thy hand:
Deliver me from the hand of mine enemies, and from them that persecute
me.
Make thy face to shine upon thy servant:
Save me in thy lovingkindness.
Let me not be put to shame, O Jehovah; for I have called upon
thee:
Let the wicked be put to shame, let them be silent in Sheol.
Let the lying lips be dumb,
Which speak against the righteous insolently,
With pride and contempt.
Oh how great is thy goodness,
Which thou hast laid up for them that fear thee,
Which thou hast wrought for them that take refuge in thee,
Before the sons of men!
In the covert of thy presence wilt thou hide them from the
plottings of man:
Thou wilt keep them secretly in a pavilion from the strife of tongues.
Blessed be Jehovah;
For he hath showed me his marvellous lovingkindness in a strong city.
As for me, I said in my haste,
I am cut off from before thine eyes:
Nevertheless thou heardest the voice of my supplications
When I cried unto thee.
Oh love Jehovah, all ye his saints:
Jehovah preserveth the faithful,
And plentifully rewardeth him that dealeth proudly.
Be strong, and let your heart take courage,
All ye that hope in Jehovah.




Psalm 32

[A Psalm] of David. Maschil.


Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven,
Whose sin is covered.
Blessed is the man unto whom Jehovah imputeth not iniquity,
And in whose spirit there is no guile.
When I kept silence, my bones wasted away
Through my groaning all the day long.
For day and night thy hand was heavy upon me:
My moisture was changed [as] with the drought of summer.

Selah
I acknowledged my sin unto thee,
And mine iniquity did I not hide:
I said, I will confess my transgressions unto Jehovah;
And thou forgavest the iniquity of my sin.

Selah
For this let every one that is godly pray unto thee in a time
when thou mayest be found:
Surely when the great waters overflow they shall not reach unto him.
Thou art my hiding-place; thou wilt preserve me from trouble;
Thou wilt compass me about with songs of deliverance.

Selah
I will instruct thee and teach thee in the way which thou shalt
go:
I will counsel thee with mine eye upon thee.
Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule, which have no
understanding;
Whose trappings must be bit and bridle to hold them in,
[Else] they will not come near unto thee.
Many sorrows shall be to the wicked;
But he that trusteth in Jehovah, lovingkindness shall compass him about.
Be glad in Jehovah, and rejoice, ye righteous;
And shout for joy, all ye that are upright in heart.




Psalm 33


Rejoice in Jehovah, O ye righteous:
Praise is comely for the upright.
Give thanks unto Jehovah with the harp:
Sing praises unto him with the psaltery of ten strings.
Sing unto him a new song;
Play skilfully with a loud noise.
For the word of Jehovah is right;
And all his work is [done] in faithfulness.
He loveth righteousness and justice:
The earth is full of the lovingkindness of Jehovah.
By the word of Jehovah were the heavens made,
And all the host of them by the breath of his mouth.
He gathereth the waters of the sea together as a heap:
He layeth up the deeps in store-houses.
Let all the earth fear Jehovah:
Let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him.
For he spake, and it was done;
He commanded, and it stood fast.
Jehovah bringeth the counsel of the nations to nought;
He maketh the thoughts of the peoples to be of no effect.
The counsel of Jehovah standeth fast for ever,
The thoughts of his heart to all generations.
Blessed is the nation whose God is Jehovah,
The people whom he hath chosen for his own inheritance.
Jehovah looketh from heaven;
He beholdeth all the sons of men;
From the place of his habitation he looketh forth
Upon all the inhabitants of the earth,
He that fashioneth the hearts of them all,
That considereth all their works.
There is no king saved by the multitude of a host:
A mighty man is not delivered by great strength.
A horse is a vain thing for safety;
Neither doth he deliver any by his great power.
Behold, the eye of Jehovah is upon them that fear him,
Upon them that hope in his lovingkindness;
To deliver their soul from death,
And to keep them alive in famine.
Our soul hath waited for Jehovah:
He is our help and our shield.
For our heart shall rejoice in him,
Because we have trusted in his holy name.
Let thy lovingkindness, O Jehovah, be upon us,
According as we have hoped in thee.




Psalm 34

A Psalm of David; when he changed his behavior before Abimelech, who
drove him away, and he departed.


I will bless Jehovah at all times:
His praise shall continually be in my mouth.
My soul shall make her boast in Jehovah:
The meek shall hear thereof, and be glad.
Oh magnify Jehovah with me,
And let us exalt his name together.
I sought Jehovah, and he answered me,
And delivered me from all my fears.
They looked unto him, and were radiant;
And their faces shall never be confounded.
This poor man cried, and Jehovah heard him,
And saved him out of all his troubles.
The angel of Jehovah encampeth round about them that fear him,
Oh taste and see that Jehovah is good:
Blessed is the man that taketh refuge in him.
Oh fear Jehovah, ye his saints;
For there is no want to them that fear him.
The young lions do lack, and suffer hunger;
But they that seek Jehovah shall not want any good thing.
Come, ye children, hearken unto me:
I will teach you the fear of Jehovah.
What man is he that desireth life,
And loveth [many] days, that he may see good?
Keep thy tongue from evil,
And thy lips from speaking guile.
Depart from evil, and do good;
Seek peace, and pursue it.
The eyes of Jehovah are toward the righteous,
And his ears are [open] unto their cry.
The face of Jehovah is against them that do evil,
To cut off the remembrance of them from the earth.
[The righteous] cried, and Jehovah heard,
And delivered them out of all their troubles.
Jehovah is nigh unto them that are of a broken heart,
And saveth such as are of a contrite spirit.
Many are the afflictions of the righteous;
But Jehovah delivereth him out of them all.
He keepeth all his bones:
Not one of them is broken.
Evil shall slay the wicked;
And they that hate the righteous shall be condemned.
Jehovah redeemeth the soul of his servants;
And none of them that take refuge in him shall be condemned.




Psalm 35

[A Psalm] of David.


Strive thou, O Jehovah, with them that strive with me:
Fight thou against them that fight against me.
Take hold of shield and buckler,
And stand up for my help.
Draw out also the spear, and stop the way against them that
pursue me:
Say unto my soul, I am thy salvation.
Let them be put to shame and brought to dishonor that seek after
my soul:
Let them be turned back and confounded that devise my hurt.
Let them be as chaff before the wind,
And the angel of Jehovah driving [them] on.
Let their way be dark and slippery,
And the angel of Jehovah pursuing them.
For without cause have they hid for me their net [in] a pit;
Without cause have they digged [a pit] for my soul.
Let destruction come upon him unawares;
And let his net that he hath hid catch himself:
With destruction let him fall therein.
And my soul shall be joyful in Jehovah:
It shall rejoice in his salvation.
All my bones shall say, Jehovah, who is like unto thee,
Who deliverest the poor from him that is too strong for him,
Yea, the poor and the needy from him that robbeth him?
Unrighteous witnesses rise up;
They ask me of things that I know not.
They reward me evil for good,
[To] the bereaving of my soul.
But as for me, when they were sick, my clothing was sackcloth:
I afflicted my soul with fasting;
And my prayer returned into mine own bosom.
I behaved myself as though it had been my friend or my brother:
I bowed down mourning, as one that bewaileth his mother.
But in mine adversity they rejoiced, and gathered themselves
together:
The abjects gathered themselves together against me, and I knew [it]
not;
They did tear me, and ceased not:
Like the profane mockers in feasts,
They gnashed upon me with their teeth.
Lord, how long wilt thou look on?
Rescue my soul from their destructions,
My darling from the lions.
I will give thee thanks in the great assembly:
I will praise thee among much people.
Let not them that are mine enemies wrongfully rejoice over me;
Neither let them wink with the eye that hate me without a cause.
For they speak not peace;
But they devise deceitful words against them that are quiet in the land.
Yea, they opened their mouth wide against me;
They said, Aha, aha, our eye hath seen it.
Thou hast seen it, O Jehovah; keep not silence:
O Lord, be not far from me.
Stir up thyself, and awake to the justice [due] unto me,
[Even] unto my cause, my God and my Lord.
Judge me, O Jehovah my God, according to thy righteousness;
And let them not rejoice over me.
Let them not say in their heart, Aha, so would we have it:
Let them not say, We have swallowed him up.
Let them be put to shame and confounded together that rejoice
at my hurt:
Let them be clothed with shame and dishonor that magnify themselves
against me.
Let them shout for joy, and be glad, that favor my righteous
cause:
Yea, let them say continually, Jehovah be magnified,
Who hath pleasure in the prosperity of his servant.
And my tongue shall talk of thy righteousness
[And] of thy praise all the day long.




Psalm 36

For the Chief Musician. [A Psalm] of David the servant of Jehovah.


The transgression of the wicked saith within my heart,
There is no fear of God before his eyes.
For he flattereth himself in his own eyes,
That his iniquity will not be found out and be hated.
The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit:
He hath ceased to be wise [and] to do good.
He deviseth iniquity upon his bed;
He setteth himself in a way that is not good;
He abhorreth not evil.


Thy lovingkindness, O Jehovah, is in the heavens;
Thy faithfulness [reacheth] unto the skies.
Thy righteousness is like the mountains of God;
Thy judgments are a great deep:
O Jehovah, thou preservest man and beast.
How precious is thy lovingkindness, O God!
And the children of men take refuge under the shadow of thy wings.
They shall be abundantly satisfied with the fatness of thy house;
And thou wilt make them drink of the river of thy pleasures.
For with thee is the fountain of life:
In thy light shall we see light.
Oh continue thy lovingkindness unto them that know thee,
And thy righteousness to the upright in heart.
Let not the foot of pride come against me,
And let not the hand of the wicked drive me away.
There are the workers of iniquity fallen:
They are thrust down, and shall not be able to rise.




Psalm 37

[A Psalm] of David.


Fret not thyself because of evil-doers,
Neither be thou envious against them that work unrighteousness.
For they shall soon be cut down like the grass,
And wither as the green herb.
Trust in Jehovah, and do good;
Dwell in the land, and feed on [his] faithfulness.
Delight thyself also in Jehovah;
And he will give thee the desires of thy heart.
Commit thy way unto Jehovah;
Trust also in him, and he will bring it to pass.
And he will make thy righteousness to go forth as the light,
And thy justice as the noon-day.
Rest in Jehovah, and wait patiently for him:
Fret not thyself because of him who prospereth in his way,
Because of the man who bringeth wicked devices to pass.
Cease from anger, and forsake wrath:
Fret not thyself, [it tendeth] only to evil-doing.
For evil-doers shall be cut off;
But those that wait for Jehovah, they shall inherit the land.
For yet a little while, and the wicked shall not be:
Yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and he shall not be.
But the meek shall inherit the land,
And shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace.
The wicked plotteth against the just,
And gnasheth upon him with his teeth.
The Lord will laugh at him;
For he seeth that his day is coming.
The wicked have drawn out the sword, and have bent their bow,
To cast down the poor and needy,
To slay such as are upright in the way.
Their sword shall enter into their own heart,
And their bows shall be broken.
Better is a little that the righteous hath
Than the abundance of many wicked.
For the arms of the wicked shall be broken;
But Jehovah upholdeth the righteous.
Jehovah knoweth the days of the perfect;
And their inheritance shall be for ever.
They shall not be put to shame in the time of evil;
And in the days of famine they shall be satisfied.
But the wicked shall perish,
And the enemies of Jehovah shall be as the fat of lambs:
They shall consume;
In smoke shall they consume away.
The wicked borroweth, and payeth not again;
But the righteous dealeth graciously, and giveth.
For such as are blessed of him shall inherit the land;
And they that are cursed of him shall be cut off.
A man's goings are established of Jehovah;
And he delighteth in his way.
Though he fall, he shall not be utterly cast down;
For Jehovah upholdeth him with his hand.
I have been young, and now am old;
Yet have I not seen the righteous forsaken,
Nor his seed begging bread.
All the day long he dealeth graciously, and lendeth;
And his seed is blessed.
Depart from evil, and do good;
And dwell for evermore.
For Jehovah loveth justice,
And forsaketh not his saints;
They are preserved for ever:
But the seed of the wicked shall be cut off.
The righteous shall inherit the land,
And dwell therein for ever.
The mouth of the righteous talketh of wisdom,
And his tongue speaketh justice.
The law of his God is in his heart;
None of his steps shall slide.
The wicked watcheth the righteous,
And seeketh to slay him.
Jehovah will not leave him in his hand,
Nor condemn him when he is judged.
Wait for Jehovah, and keep his way,
And he will exalt thee to inherit the land:
When the wicked are cut off, thou shalt see it.
I have seen the wicked in great power,
And spreading himself like a green tree in its native soil.
But one passed by, and, lo, he was not:
Yea, I sought him, but he could not be found.
Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright;
For there is a [happy] end to the man of peace.
As for transgressors, they shall be destroyed together;
The end of the wicked shall be cut off.
But the salvation of the righteous is of Jehovah;
He is their stronghold in the time of trouble.
And Jehovah helpeth them, and rescueth them;
He rescueth them from the wicked, and saveth them,
Because they have taken refuge in him.




Psalm 38

A Psalm of David, to bring to remembrance.


O Jehovah, rebuke me not in thy wrath;
Neither chasten me in thy hot displeasure.
For thine arrows stick fast in me,
And thy hand presseth me sore.
There is no soundness in my flesh because of thine indignation;
Neither is there any health in my bones because of my sin.
For mine iniquities are gone over my head:
As a heavy burden they are too heavy for me.
My wounds are loathsome and corrupt,
Because of my foolishness.
I am pained and bowed down greatly;
I go mourning all the day long.
For my loins are filled with burning;
And there is no soundness in my flesh.
I am faint and sore bruised:
I have groaned by reason of the disquietness of my heart.
Lord, all my desire is before thee;
And my groaning is not hid from thee.
My heart throbbeth, my strength faileth me:
As for the light of mine eyes, it also is gone from me.
My lovers and my friends stand aloof from my plague;
And my kinsmen stand afar off.
They also that seek after my life lay snares [for me];
And they that seek my hurt speak mischievous things,
And meditate deceits all the day long.
But I, as a deaf man, hear not;
And I am as a dumb man that openeth not his mouth.
Yea, I am as a man that heareth not,
And in whose mouth are no reproofs.
For in thee, O Jehovah, do I hope:
Thou wilt answer, O Lord my God.
For I said, Lest they rejoice over me:
When my foot slippeth, they magnify themselves against me.
For I am ready to fall,
And my sorrow is continually before me.
For I will declare mine iniquity; I will be sorry for my sin.
But mine enemies are lively, [and] are strong;
And they that hate me wrongfully are multiplied.
They also that render evil for good
Are adversaries unto me, because I follow the thing that is good.
Forsake me not, O Jehovah:
O my God, be not far from me.
Make haste to help me,
O Lord, my salvation.




Psalm 39

For the Chief Musician, Jeduthun. A Psalm of David.


I said, I will take heed to my ways,
That I sin not with my tongue:
I will keep my mouth with a bridle,
While the wicked is before me.
I was dumb with silence, I held my peace, even from good;
And my sorrow was stirred.
My heart was hot within me;
While I was musing the fire burned:
[Then] spake I with my tongue:
Jehovah, make me to know mine end,
And the measure of my days, what it is;
Let me know how frail I am.
Behold, thou hast made my days [as] handbreadths;
And my life-time is as nothing before thee:
Surely every man at his best estate is altogether vanity.

Selah
Surely every man walketh in a vain show;
Surely they are disquieted in vain:
He heapeth up [riches], and knoweth not who shall gather them.
And now, Lord, what wait I for?
My hope is in thee.
Deliver me from all my transgressions:
Make me not the reproach of the foolish.
I was dumb, I opened not my mouth;
Because thou didst it.
Remove thy stroke away from me:
I am consumed by the blow of thy hand.
When thou with rebukes dost correct man for iniquity,
Thou makest his beauty to consume away like a moth:
Surely every man is vanity.

Selah
Hear my prayer, O Jehovah, and give ear unto my cry;
Hold not thy peace at my tears:
For I am a stranger with thee,
A sojourner, as all my fathers were.
Oh spare me, that I may recover strength,
Before I go hence, and be no more.




Psalm 40

For the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.


I waited patiently for Jehovah;
And he inclined unto me, and heard my cry.
He brought me up also out of a horrible pit, out of the miry
clay;
And he set my feet upon a rock, and established my goings.
And he hath put a new song in my mouth, even praise unto our God:
Many shall see it, and fear,
And shall trust in Jehovah.
Blessed is the man that maketh Jehovah his trust,
And respecteth not the proud, nor such as turn aside to lies.
Many, O Jehovah my God, are the wonderful works which thou hast
done,
And thy thoughts which are to us-ward;
They cannot be set in order unto thee;
If I would declare and speak of them,
They are more than can be numbered.
Sacrifice and offering thou hast no delight in;
Mine ears hast thou opened:
Burnt-offering and sin-offering hast thou not required.
Then said I, Lo, I am come;
In the roll of the book it is written of me:
I delight to do thy will, O my God;
Yea, thy law is within my heart.
I have proclaimed glad tidings of righteousness in the great
assembly;
Lo, I will not refrain my lips,
O Jehovah, thou knowest.
I have not hid thy righteousness within my heart;
I have declared thy faithfulness and thy salvation;
I have not concealed thy lovingkindness and thy truth from the great
assembly.
Withhold not thou thy tender mercies from me, O Jehovah;
Let thy lovingkindness and thy truth continually preserve me.
For innumerable evils have compassed me about;
Mine iniquities have overtaken me, so that I am not able to look up;
They are more than the hairs of my head;
And my heart hath failed me.
Be pleased, O Jehovah, to deliver me:
Make haste to help me, O Jehovah.
Let them be put to shame and confounded together
That seek after my soul to destroy it:
Let them be turned backward and brought to dishonor
That delight in my hurt.
Let them be desolate by reason of their shame
That say unto me, Aha, aha.
Let all those that seek thee rejoice and be glad in thee:
Let such as love thy salvation say continually,
Jehovah be magnified.
But I am poor and needy;
[Yet] the Lord thinketh upon me:
Thou art my help and my deliverer;
Make no tarrying, O my God.




Psalm 41

For the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.


Blessed is he that considereth the poor:
Jehovah will deliver him in the day of evil.
Jehovah will preserve him, and keep him alive,
And he shall be blessed upon the earth;
And deliver not thou him unto the will of his enemies.
Jehovah will support him upon the couch of languishing:
Thou makest all his bed in his sickness.
I said, O Jehovah, have mercy upon me:
Heal my soul; for I have sinned against thee.
Mine enemies speak evil against me, [saying],
When will he die, and his name perish?
And if he come to see [me], he speaketh falsehood;
His heart gathereth iniquity to itself:
When he goeth abroad, he telleth it.
All that hate me whis
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HELEN
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RobertHouse
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Joined: 07 Apr 2014
Posts: 121


PostPosted: Fri May 23, 2014 7:45 am Reply with quoteBack to top
Wow this spam shit is ridiculous.
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Manoil
Wastelander's Nightmare
Wastelander's Nightmare


Joined: 22 Feb 2006
Posts: 3715
Location: Drifting Onward

PostPosted: Fri May 23, 2014 5:51 pm Reply with quoteBack to top
A far cry from what it used to be, but this one seems particularly ambitious.
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Manoil
Wastelander's Nightmare
Wastelander's Nightmare


Joined: 22 Feb 2006
Posts: 3715
Location: Drifting Onward

PostPosted: Fri May 23, 2014 5:54 pm Reply with quoteBack to top
Crazy. Four spam accounts across two different IP addresses. This could be the start of something new.
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RobertHouse
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Joined: 07 Apr 2014
Posts: 121


PostPosted: Fri May 23, 2014 10:44 pm Reply with quoteBack to top
How long has this fuck tard been doing this? I had a website with live chat and someone was trying to sell car parts and cleaners.
He was posting shit everywhere.

The spam IPs where:
95.26.125.108
216.151.130.170
188.123.248.4
188.123.248.103
84.240.9.6

After the last one i said fuck it! Only people i trust get to post stuff.
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Manoil
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Joined: 22 Feb 2006
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PostPosted: Tue May 27, 2014 8:00 pm Reply with quoteBack to top
Plenty of different ones, each with slowly-advancing software. Have to question exactly how it's being done, but they're getting past the filters and questions.
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Retlaw83
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Joined: 17 Jul 2004
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PostPosted: Wed May 28, 2014 9:06 pm Reply with quoteBack to top
They have a human reading the question. I've changed it to a question requiring research if you're not a Fallout fan and the new word filter makes them look like they're selling drugs and antique dildos.
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HELEN
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PostPosted: Fri May 06, 2016 6:26 pm Reply with quoteEdit/Delete this postBack to top
This is a good article. Click here for more information.
Fallout 3
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fallout 3
Fallout 3 cover art.PNG
Developer(s) Bethesda Game Studios
Publisher(s) Bethesda Softworks
Director(s) Todd Howard
Producer(s) Todd Howard
Gavin Carter
Ashley Cheng
Designer(s) Emil Pagliarulo
Joel Burgess
Adam Adamowicz
Programmer(s) Guy Carver
Steve Meister
Artist(s) Istvan Pely
Adam Adamowicz
Josh Jones
Mark Lampert
Writer(s) Emil Pagliarulo
Composer(s) Inon Zur
Series Fallout
Engine Gamebryo
Platform(s) Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360
Release date(s)

NA October 28, 2008
EU October 30, 2008
AUS October 30, 2008

Genre(s) Action role-playing
Mode(s) Single-player

Fallout 3 is an action role-playing open world video game developed by Bethesda Game Studios, and is the third major installment in the Fallout series.[1] It was released worldwide in October 2008 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360.[2][3][4]

Fallout 3 takes place in the year 2277, 116 years after the setting of Fallout, 36 years after the setting of Fallout 2 and 200 years after the nuclear apocalypse that devastated the game's world, in a future where international conflicts between the United States and China culminated in a Sino-American war in 2077, due to the scarcity of petroleum reserves that ran the economies of both countries. The player character is an inhabitant of Vault 101, a survival shelter designed to protect up to 1,000 humans from the nuclear fallout. When the player character's father disappears under mysterious circumstances, the leader of the Vault initiates martial law and sends security forces after the player, who is forced to escape from the Vault and journey into the ruins of Washington, D.C. to track their father down. Along the way the player is assisted by a number of human survivors and must battle a myriad of enemies that inhabit the area, now known as the "Capital Wasteland".

Fallout 3 was critically acclaimed and received a number of Game of the Year awards, praising the game's open-ended gameplay and flexible character-leveling system. The game is considered to be one of the greatest video games of all time. The NPD Group estimated that Fallout 3 sold over 610,000 units during its initial month of release in October 2008, performing better than Bethesda's previous game, The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, which sold nearly 500,000 units in its first month. The game received post-launch support with Bethesda releasing five downloadable add-ons. The game also received controversy upon release, in Australia for including the use of and the ability to be addicted to alcohol and drugs, in India for religious and cultural sentiments over the cattle in the game being called Brahmin, and in Japan due to a weapon called the "Fat Man", which launches mini nuclear bombs.

Contents

1 Gameplay
1.1 Attributes
1.2 Health and weapons
1.3 V.A.T.S.
1.4 Companions
2 Plot
2.1 Setting
2.2 Story
3 Development
3.1 Interplay Entertainment
3.2 Bethesda Softworks
3.2.1 Audio
4 Marketing and release
4.1 Trailers
4.2 Film festival
4.3 Retail versions
5 Downloadable content
6 Reception
6.1 Reviews
6.2 Sales
6.3 Awards
6.4 Technical issues
6.5 Controversy and fandom
7 Regional variations
7.1 Drug references
7.2 Release in India
7.3 Sensitivity in Japan
8 References
9 External links

Gameplay
Attributes
The Pip-Boy 3000, shown displaying the player's current skill ratings.

The game starts with the main character as a newborn, whereupon the player determines the race, gender, and the general appearance of their character. As a one-year-old baby, the infant reads a child's book titled You're SPECIAL, where the player can set the character's starting S.P.E.C.I.A.L. primary attributes: Strength, Perception, Endurance, Charisma, Intelligence, Agility, and Luck. The character gains a set of Skills with base levels determined by these attributes. At age 10, the character obtains a Pip-Boy, a computerized wristwatch which allows the player to access a menu with statistics, maps, data, radio, and other items. The character also obtains their first weapon, a BB gun, which he or she then uses to kill a radroach, a type of irradiated giant cockroach. At age 16, the character takes the Generalized Occupational Aptitude Test (G.O.A.T.) to determine the three Skills they wish the character to focus on.[5]

As the character progresses through the game, experience points are earned that are used to achieve levels of accomplishment. Upon achieving a new level, the player receives a set of skill points that can be assigned to improve any of the Skill percentages. For instance, increasing the lock pick skill grants the player the ability to pick harder locks to unlock doors and supply crates. A Perk is granted at each level, which offers advantages of varying quality and form. Many Perks have a set of prerequisites that must be satisfied, and new Perks are unlocked every two levels.[5]

An important statistic tracked in the game is karma. Each character has an aggregate amount of karma that can be affected by the decisions and actions made in the game. Positive karmic actions include freeing captives and helping others. Negative karmic actions include killing good characters and stealing. Beyond acting as flavor for the game's events, karma can have tangible effects to the player, primarily affecting the game's ending. Other effects include altered dialogue with non-player characters (NPCs), or unique reactions from other characters. Actions vary in the level of karma change they cause; thus, pickpocketing produces less negative karma than the killing of a good character. However, the player's relationships with the game's factions are distinct, so any two groups or settlements may view the player in contrasting ways, depending on the player's conduct. Some Perks require specific karma levels.[6]
Health and weapons

Health is separated into two types: general and limb. General health is the primary damage bar, and the player will die if it is depleted. Limb health is specific to each portion of the body, namely the arms, legs, head, and torso. Non-human enemies will sometimes have additional appendages. When a limb's health bar is depleted, that limb is rendered "crippled" and induces a negative status effect, such as blurred vision from a crippled head or reduced movement speed from a crippled leg. Health is diminished when damage is taken from being attacked, falling from great distances, or accidental self injury. General health can be replenished by sleeping, using medical equipment (stimpaks), eating food, or drinking water. Limbs can be healed directly by injecting them with stimpaks, by sleeping, or by being healed by a doctor.[7] Along with the health, there are 20 bobbleheads that can be found throughout the game that will give the player bonuses to attributes and skills. Each bobblehead is an iconic Vault Boy figurine in a different pose. Three of them have to be found in different time periods in the gameplay; otherwise they will be lost.[8]

There are secondary health factors that can affect performance. Chief among these is radiation poisoning: most food is irradiated to a small degree, and parts of the world have varying levels of background radiation. As the player is exposed to radiation, it builds up, causing negative effects and eventually death if left untreated. Radiation sickness must be healed by special medicine named Rad Away or by visiting one of the Wasteland's doctors. Radiation can be prevented by the use of Rad-X which increases radiation resistance. The player can become addicted to drugs and alcohol, and then go through withdrawal symptoms if denied those substances. Both afflictions can blur the player's vision for a few seconds and have a negative effect on SPECIAL attributes until the problem is corrected.[9]

Items can become degraded and become less effective. Firearms do less damage and may jam during reloading, and apparel becomes gradually less protective.[10] This will eventually result in the item breaking altogether. Items can be repaired for a price from special vendors, or, when the player has two of the same item (or a comparable item), one can be repaired using salvage parts from the other. Players have the option to create their own weaponry using various scavenged items found in the wasteland. These items can only be created at workbenches, and only if the player possesses the necessary schematics or Perk. These weapons usually possess significant advantages over other weapons of their type. Each schematic has three copies that can be found. Each copy improves the condition (or number) of items produced at the workbench. A higher repair skill will result in a better starting condition for the related weapon. Weapon schematics can be found lying in certain locations, bought from vendors, or received as quest rewards.[11]
V.A.T.S.
V.A.T.S. shown being used. Real-time action is stopped and the player can see the probability of hitting each enemy body part through percentage ratio.

The Vault-Tec Assisted Targeting System, or V.A.T.S., plays an important part in combat. While using V.A.T.S., real-time combat is paused, and action is played out from varying camera angles in a computer graphics version of "bullet time", creating a combat system that the Bethesda developers have described as a hybrid between timeturn-based and real-time combat. Various actions cost action points, limiting the actions of each combatant during a turn, and the player can target specific body areas for attacks to inflict specific injuries; head shots can be used for quick kills or blinding, legs can be targeted to slow enemies' movements, opponents can be disarmed by shooting at their weapons, and players can drive certain enemies into a berserker rage by shooting out things like antennae on various overgrown insects and combat inhibitors on armored robots. However, the use of V.A.T.S. also eliminates most of the first-person shooter elements of the game; aiming is taken over by the computer, and the player is unable to move as a means of avoiding attacks. Each body part has a percentage of hit chance, and generally the closer the player character is to an enemy the higher that percentage. The higher level the character using V.A.T.S is, the more likely that character will hit their enemy.[12]
Companions

The player can have a maximum party of three consisting of the player's character, a dog named Dogmeat, and a single non-player character (NPC). Dogmeat can be killed during the game if the player misuses him or places him in a severely dangerous situationa;[13][14] it is possible to not encounter Dogmeat at all depending on how the game is played.[15] One other NPC can travel with the player at any time, and in order to get another NPC to travel, the first one must be dismissed (either voluntarily by the player or as a consequence of other events) or die in combat.
a In the "Broken Steel" DLC, the level 22 perk "Puppies!" allows the player to gain a puppy if Dogmeat dies.
Plot
Setting
Main article: Fallout (series)
The desolate area of the Capital Wasteland, where Fallout 3 takes place.

Fallout 3 takes place in the year 2277, 200 years after a war over resources that ended in nuclear holocaust in 2077. The setting is a post-apocalyptic retro-future, covering a region that includes Washington, D.C., Northern Virginia and parts of Maryland.[16] The game's landscape includes war-ravaged variants of numerous real-life landmarks such as the White House, the Jefferson and Lincoln Memorials, Arlington National Cemetery and the Washington Monument. The area that the game is set in, known in-game as the Capital Wasteland, holds a number of small settlements of the descendants of survivors from the Great War. Many inhabitants were killed during the nuclear holocaust and the Wasteland is now little more than a barren land nearly devoid of healthy water, food, plant and animal life due to the extreme radiation levels. However, there is a small settlement in the north part of the Capital Wasteland where plant life is abundant.[17]

The player begins the game inside Vault 101, where they were raised, before escaping out into the Capital Wasteland and facing its many dangers. The Capital Wasteland is home to a number of mutated species of creatures such as two-headed cattle called Brahmin, radscorpions, molerats, and mirelurks. Many of these creatures are generally hostile to the player and will attack on sight. The Wasteland and the city proper is home to several hostile groups, including super mutants, feral ghouls, raiders, slavers, mercenaries, and robots. Of note are the various Vaults—underground structures designed as shelters to protect inhabitants from the dangers of nuclear war (and also for more sinister purposes). In the Washington, D.C. area, many of the roads are blocked off with giant piles of rubble. The player can navigate around the city using a system of underground metro tunnels that connect with other locations (loosely based on the real-life Washington Metro).[18]

The game takes place in an alternate version of history that sees the 1940s' and 1950s' aesthetics, design and technology advance in the directions imagined at the time. The resulting universe is thus a retro-futuristic one, where the technology has evolved enough to produce laser weapons, manipulate genes and create nearly-autonomous artificial intelligence, but all within the confines of 1950s' solutions like the widespread use of atomic power and vacuum tubes, as well as having the integrated circuitry of the digital age. The architecture, advertisements and general living styles are also depicted to be largely unchanged since the 1950s, while including contemporary products, such as a robotic rocking horse for children in one advertisement, or posters for the underground vaults that play a central role in the storyline of the game.
Story

The introductory sequence introduces the player to their character's father, James, a doctor and scientist in Vault 101. James frequently makes comments about the player character's deceased mother Catherine, and her favorite Bible passage, Revelation 21:6, which speaks of "the waters of life".

The main quest begins 19 years later, after the player is forced to flee Vault 101 when James leaves the vault, throwing it into anarchy and causing the paranoid Overseer, the leader of the Vault, to send his security force after the player. The search for James takes the character on a journey through the Wasteland, first to the nearby town of Megaton, named for the undetonated atomic bomb at the center of town, then the Galaxy News Radio station, whose enthusiastic DJ Three Dog gives the player the moniker of "The Lone Wanderer". The player travels to Rivet City, a derelict aircraft carrier now serving as a fortified human settlement. Here the player meets Doctor Li, a scientist who worked alongside the player's father. Doctor Li informs the player of Project Purity, a plan conceived by Catherine and James to purify all the water in the Tidal Basin and eventually the entire Potomac River with a giant water purifier built in the Jefferson Memorial. However, continued delays and Catherine's death during childbirth put an end to the project, and James took the player's character as a newborn to raise them in the safety of Vault 101.

After investigating the Jefferson Memorial, the Lone Wanderer tracks James to Vault 112, and frees him from a virtual reality program being run by the Vault's sadistic Overseer, Dr. Braun. James and the player return to Rivet City, and James reveals he sought out Braun for information on the Garden of Eden Creation Kit (G.E.C.K.), a device that contains the components needed to finally activate Project Purity. James and Doctor Li lead a team of Rivet City scientists to the memorial with intent to restart the project, but the memorial is invaded by the Enclave, a powerful military organization formed from the remnants of the pre-War United States government. James floods the project's control room with radiation to stop the Enclave military leader, Colonel Augustus Autumn, from taking control of it, killing himself (but Autumn survives), his last words urging his child to run. The Lone Wanderer and Dr. Li flee to the ruins of the Pentagon, now a base for the Brotherhood of Steel and now known as the Citadel. With Project Purity still inoperational even with the Enclave occupying the site, the player travels to Vault 87 to find a G.E.C.K. and finish James's work. The player finds the Vault to be a testing site for the FEV (Forced Evolutionary Virus), and the source of the Super Mutants in the Capital Wasteland. After the player acquires the G.E.C.K., the Wanderer is ambushed by the Enclave and captured.

At the Enclave base at Raven Rock, the player is freed from their cell by the Enclave leader, President John Henry Eden, who requests a private audience with them. En route to his office however, Colonel Autumn defies Eden's orders and takes command of the Enclave military, ordering them to kill the player. Fighting their way to Eden's office, the player discovers Eden is actually a sentient ZAX series supercomputer who took control of the Enclave after their defeat in Fallout 2 on the West Coast thirty years previously. Eden wishes to repeat the plan of then-President Dick Richardson using Project Purity, infecting the water with a modified strain of FEV that will make it toxic to any mutated life. This plan will kill most life in the wasteland including humans, but the Enclave, due to their genetic "purity" as a result of their isolation, will be immune and free to take control of the area. The Wanderer, provided with a sample of the new F.E.V., is given a choice to either leave peacefully or convince Eden to self-destruct the entire base. The Lone Wanderer escapes Raven Rock and returns to the Citadel.

With the knowledge they possess, the G.E.C.K. and the means to activate Project Purity, the Brotherhood assault the Jefferson Memorial, spearheaded by a giant robot named Liberty Prime. In the control room of Project Purity the player confronts Colonel Autumn, and has the choice to persuade him to give up or kill him. Dr. Li informs the player that the purifier is ready to be activated, but the activation code must be input manually, and also that the control room is flooded with lethal amounts of radiation. The Lone Wanderer is forced to choose between sending Sarah Lyons of the Brotherhood inside the extremely irradiated purifier or entering themselves. Whoever enters into the chamber inputs the code hinted at throughout the game, 21:6, and dies from a radiation spike.

If the "Broken Steel" DLC is installed, the player survives if they activate it themselves, but they also have the option of sending one of their radiation-immune companions to enter the code and start the purifier with no casualties. The player also has the possibility to enter the F.E.V. sample into the water prior to activation, having adverse post-ending effects on the game's side quests.
Development
Interplay Entertainment
Further information: Van Buren (video game)

Fallout 3 was initially under development by Black Isle Studios, a studio owned by Interplay Entertainment, under the working title Van Buren. Black Isle Studios was the developer of the original Fallout and Fallout 2. When Interplay Entertainment went bankrupt and closed down Black Isle Studios before the game could be completed, the license to develop Fallout 3 was sold for a $1,175,000 minimum guaranteed advance against royalties to Bethesda Softworks, a studio primarily known as the developer of The Elder Scrolls series.[19] Bethesda's Fallout 3, however, was developed from scratch, using neither Van Buren code nor any other materials created by Black Isle Studios.[20] In May 2007, a playable technology demo of the canceled project was released to the public.[21]

Leonard Boyarsky, art director of the original Fallout, when asked about Interplay Entertainment's sale of the rights to Bethesda Softworks, said "To be perfectly honest, I was extremely disappointed that we did not get the chance to make the next Fallout game. This has nothing to do with Bethesda, it's just that we've always felt that Fallout was ours and it was just a technicality that Interplay happened to own it. It sort of felt as if our child had been sold to the highest bidder, and we had to just sit by and watch. Since I have absolutely no idea what their plans are, I can't comment on whether I think they're going in the right direction with it or not.".[22]
Bethesda Softworks
Bethesda Softworks' Fallout 3 booth at the Games Convention 2008

Bethesda Softworks started working on Fallout 3 in July 2004,[23] but principal development did not begin until after The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion and its related extras and plug ins were completed.[24] Bethesda Softworks decided to make Fallout 3 similar to the previous two games, focusing upon non-linear gameplay, story, and black comedy. Bethesda also chose to pursue an ESRB rating of M (for mature) by including the adult themes, violence, and depravity characteristic of the Fallout series. They also decided to shy away from the self-referential gags of the game's predecessors that broke the illusion that the world of Fallout is real. Fallout 3 uses a version of the same Gamebryo engine as Oblivion,[25] and was developed by the team responsible for that game.[26] Liam Neeson was cast as the voice of the player's father.[27]

In February 2007, Bethesda stated that the game was "a fairly good ways away" from release but that detailed information and previews would be available later in the year.[26] Following a statement made by Pete Hines that the team wanted to make the game a "multiple platform title",[28] the game was announced by Game Informer to be in development for Windows, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3.[4]

During a March 21, 2008, Official Xbox Magazine podcast interview, Todd Howard revealed that the game had expanded to nearly the same scope as Oblivion. There were originally at least 12 versions of the final cutscene, but, with further development, this expanded to over 200 possible permutations in the final release, all of which are determined by the actions taken by the player.[14] Bethesda Softworks attended E3 2008 to showcase Fallout 3. The first live demo of the Xbox 360 version of the game was shown and demonstrated by Todd Howard, taking place in downtown Washington, D.C. The demo showcased various weapons such as the Fat Man nuclear catapult, the V.A.T.S. system and the functions of the Pip-Boy 3000 as well as combat with several enemies. The demo concluded as the player neared the Brotherhood of Steel-controlled Pentagon and was attacked by an Enclave patrol.[29]
Audio

Several actors of film and video games lent their voices to Fallout 3, including Liam Neeson as James,[27] Ron Perlman as the game's narrator, Malcolm McDowell as President John Henry Eden, Craig Sechler as Butch DeLoria, Erik Todd Dellums as Three Dog, and Odette Yustman as Amata Almodovar. Veteran voice actors Dee Bradley Baker, Wes Johnson, Paul Eiding, and Stephen Russell also provided voice overs for the game. The Fallout 3 soundtrack continued the series' convention of featuring sentimental 1940s big band American popular music, the main theme, and few other side songs recorded by The Ink Spots and The Andrews Sisters; in addition to a score written by composer Inon Zur.[30] The soundtrack of the game included artists such as Roy Brown, Billie Holiday, Billy Munn, Cole Porter, and Bob Crosby.[31]
Marketing and release
"Prepare for the Future" promotional campaign at the Metro Center station in Washington, D.C.
Trailers

A teaser site for the game appeared on May 2, 2007, and featured music from the game and concept art, along with a timer that counted down to June 5, 2007. The artists and developers involved later confirmed that the concept art, commissioned before Oblivion had been released, did not reveal anything from the actual game.[32] When the countdown finished, the site hosted the first teaser trailer for the game, and unveiled a release date of "Fall 2008".[33]

On June 5, 2007, Bethesda released the Fallout 3 teaser trailer.[34] The press kit released with the trailer indicated that Ron Perlman would be on board with the project, and cited a release date of Fall 2008. The trailer featured The Ink Spots song "I Don't Want to Set the World on Fire", which the previous Fallout developer Black Isle Studios originally intended to license for use in the first Fallout game. The trailer, which was completely done with in-engine assets, closed with Ron Perlman saying his trademark line which he also spoke in the original Fallout: "War. War never changes". The trailer showed a devastated Washington, D.C., evidenced by the partially damaged Washington Monument in the background as well as the crumbling buildings that surrounded a rubble-choked city thoroughfare.[35]

A second trailer was first shown during a GameTrailers TV E3 special on July 12, 2008. The trailer zoomed out from a ruined house in the Washington, D.C. suburbs, and provided a wider view of the capital's skyline including the Capitol Building and Washington Monument in the distance.[36] On July 14, 2008, an extended version of this trailer was made available, which besides the original content, included a Vault-Tec advertisement and actual gameplay. Both versions of the trailer featured the song "Dear Hearts and Gentle People" as recorded by Bob Crosby and the Bobcats.[37]
Film festival

On July 11, 2008, as a part of promoting Fallout 3, Bethesda Softworks partnered with American Cinematheque and Geek Monthly to sponsor "A Post-Apocalyptic Film Festival Presented by Fallout 3". The festival took place on August 22–23 at Santa Monica's Aero Theater. Six post-apocalyptic movies were shown which depict life and events that could occur after a world-changing disaster, including Wizards, Damnation Alley, A Boy and His Dog, The Last Man on Earth, The Omega Man, and Twelve Monkeys.[38]
Retail versions
Features Edition
Standard Collector's Limited Survival Game of the Year
Game disc & manual Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bonus DVD No Yes No Yes No
Concept artbook No Yes No Yes No
Vault Boy Bobblehead No Yes No Yes No
Lunchbox case No Yes No Yes No
Power Armor figurine No No Yes No No
PIP-Boy 3000 clock No No No Yes No
Downloadable content No No No No Yes

Fallout 3 was released in five separate versions, only three of which were made available worldwide:

The Standard Edition includes the game disc and instruction manual with no extras.
The Collector's Edition includes the game disc, manual, a bonus "making of" disc, a concept artbook, and a 5" Vault Boy Bobblehead, all of which is contained in a Vault-Tec lunchbox.[39] In Australia, the Collector's Edition is exclusive to Gametraders and EB Games.[40]
The Limited Edition includes the game disc and manual, as well as a Brotherhood of Steel Power Armor figurine. This edition is available only in the UK through the retailer Game.
The Survival Edition includes everything from the Collector's Edition, as well as a model of the PIP-Boy 3000 from the game which functions as a digital clock.[39] The Survival Edition is available exclusively from Amazon.com to U.S. customers only.[41]
The Game of the Year Edition, which includes the original Fallout 3 game as well as all 5 of the downloadable content packs, was released on October 13, 2009 in North America and October 16, 2009 in Europe. It was released in Australia on October 22, 2009, and in Japan on December 3, 2009.[42] It was made available on Steam on December 17, 2009.[43]

An Xbox 360 version of Fallout 3 and Oblivion double pack was announced for release in North America on April 3.[44]
Downloadable content
Main article: Fallout 3 downloadable content

Bethesda's Todd Howard first confirmed during E3 2008 that downloadable content (DLC) would be prepared for the Xbox 360 and Windows versions of Fallout 3.[45][46][47] There are five DLCs: Operation: Anchorage, The Pitt, Broken Steel, Point Lookout, and Mothership Zeta, released in that order. Of the five, Broken Steel has the largest effect on the game, altering the ending and allowing the player to continue playing past the end of the main quest line.[48]

Originally, there was no downloadable content announced for the PlayStation 3 version of the game.[45] Although Bethesda had not offered an official explanation as to why the content was not released for PlayStation 3, Lazard Capital Markets analyst Colin Sebastian speculated that it may have been the result of a money deal with Bethesda by Sony's competitor, Microsoft.[46] When asked if the PlayStation 3 version would receive an update that would enable gameplay beyond the main quest's completion, Todd Howard responded, "Not at this time, no."[49] However, in May 2009, Bethesda announced that the existing DLC packs (Operation: Anchorage, The Pitt and Broken Steel) would be made available for the PlayStation 3; the later two (Point Lookout and Mothership Zeta) were released for all platforms.[50]

On October 1, 2009, a New Xbox Experience premium theme for the game was released for the Xbox 360. Consumers could pay 240 Microsoft Points, or by having downloaded all other downloadable content. The PlayStation 3 received a free theme, featuring a Brotherhood of Steel Knight in the background, and includes symbols from the game as icons on the PS3 home menu.[51][52][53] In December 2008 the official editor, known as the G.E.C.K. (Garden of Eden Creation Kit) was made available for the Windows version of the game as a free download from the Fallout 3 website.[54][55]
Reception
Reviews
[icon] This section requires expansion. (January 2016)
Reception
Aggregate score
Aggregator Score
Metacritic 93/100 (X360)[69]
91/100 (PC)[70]
90/100 (PS3)[71]
Review scores
Publication Score
1UP.com A[56]
Edge 7/10[57]
EGM A, B+, A+[58]
Eurogamer 10/10[59]
Famitsu 38/40[60]
Game Informer 9.5/10[61]
GameSpot 9/10 (X360/PC)[62][63]
8.5/10 (PS3)[64]
GameSpy 5/5 stars[5]
IGN 9.6/10 (X360/PC)[65]
9.4/10 (PS3)[66]
OXM 10/10[67]
PC Gamer (US) 91%[68]
Awards
Publication Award
9th Annual Game Developers Choice Awards Game of the Year 2008[72]
Best Writing[72]
IGN Best of 2008[73] Game of the Year 2008[74]
Best Xbox 360 Game[75]
Best RPG[76]
Best Use of Sound[76]
GameSpot Best of 2008 Best PC Game[76]
Best RPG[76]
Golden Joystick Award 2009 Ultimate Game of the Year 2009[77]
PC Game of the Year 2009[77]

Fallout 3 received "universal acclaim", according to video game review aggregator Metacritic.[69][70][71] 1UP.com's Demian Linn praised its open-ended gameplay and flexible character-leveling system. While the V.A.T.S. system was called "fun", enemy encounters were said to suffer from a lack of precision in real-time combat and little variety in enemy types. The review concluded, Fallout 3 is a "hugely ambitious game that doesn't come around very often".[56] IGN editor Erik Brudvig praised the game's "minimalist" sound design, observing, "you might find yourself with nothing but the sound of wind rustling through decaying trees and blowing dust across the barren plains ... Fallout 3 proves that less can be more". The review noted that the "unusual amount of realism" combined with the "endless conversation permutations" produces "one of the most truly interactive experiences of the generation".[65] In a review of the game for Kotaku, Mike Fahey commented that "While Inon Zur's score is filled with epic goodness, the real stars of Fallout 3's music are the vintage songs from the 1940s".[78] Will Tuttle of GameSpy commended the game for its "engaging storyline, impeccable presentation, and hundreds of hours of addictive gameplay".[79] Although Edge awarded the game 7 out of 10, in a later anniversary issue it placed the game 37th in a "100 best games to play today" list, saying "Fallout 3 empowers, engages and rewards to extents that few games have ever achieved".[80]

Some criticisms were the bugs in regards to the physics and crashes—some of which broke quests and even prevented progression.[65] The AI and stiff character animations are another common point of criticism,[81][82][83] as is the ending.[81][84] Edge stated that "the game is cumbersome in design and frequently incompetent in the details of execution", taking particular issue with the nakedness of the HUD, the clarity of the menu interface, and that the smaller problems are carried over from Oblivion. Edge liked the central story but said "the writing isn't quite as consistent as the ideas that underpin" and that the "voice-acting is even less reliable".[57]
Sales

From its release in October to the end of 2008, Fallout 3 shipped over 4.7 million units.[85] According to NPD Group, as of January 2009, the Xbox 360 version had sold 1.14 million units, and the PlayStation 3 version had sold 552,000 units.[86] The Xbox 360 version was the 14th best-selling game of December 2008 in the United States, while the PlayStation 3 version was the 8th best-selling PlayStation 3 game in that region and month.[87] Electronic Entertainment Design and Research, a market research firm, estimated that the game had sold 12.4 million copies worldwide.[88]

Fallout 3 was one of the most played titles in Xbox Live in 2009 and Games for Windows – Live in 2009, 2011, and 2012.[89][90][91]
Awards

Fallout 3 won several awards following its showcasing at E3 2007. IGN gave it the "Game of E3 2007" award, and GameSpot gave it the "Best Role-Playing Game of E3 2007" award.[92][93] Following the game's demonstration at E3 2008, IGN also gave it "Best Overall RPG", "Best Overall Console Game", and "Overall Game of the Show" for E3 2008.[94] Game Critics Awards gave the game "Best Role-Playing Game" and "Best of Show" for E3 2008.[95]

After its release, Fallout 3 won numerous awards from gaming journalists and websites. At the 2009 Game Developer's Choice Awards, it won overall "Game of the Year" along with "Best Writing."[72] It was also awarded "Game of the Year" by IGN,[74] GamesRadar,[96] GameSpy,[97] UGO Networks,[98] Gamasutra[99] and the Golden Joystick Awards.[77] The game also won "Xbox 360 Game of the Year" from Official Xbox Magazine,[76] GameSpy[76] and IGN,[75] while winning "PC Game of the Year" from GamePro,[100] GameSpy,[101] GameTrailers[102] and GameSpot,[76] with the latter two also awarding it "Best RPG."[76][103]

At the end of 2009, Fallout 3 was featured in IGN's "Best Video and Computer Games of the Decade" (2000–2009), with the game being placed top game of 2008[104] and seventh overall game of the decade.[105] In 2012, Fallout 3 was also exhibited at the Smithsonian American Art Museum . Fallout 3 was voted for and won the "Adventure" section for the platform "Modern Windows."[106] That same year, G4tv ranked it as the 75th top video game of all time.[107]
Technical issues

Shortly before the game's release, IGN posted a review of the game, citing numerous bugs and crashes in the PlayStation 3 release.[108] The game also contained a bug, causing the game to freeze and the screen to blur when friends signed out of and into the PlayStation Network.[108] The IGN review was edited shortly thereafter, removing all references to the PS3 version's bugs, causing controversy in the PlayStation communities.[108][109] Reviewing PlayStation 3 Game of the Year edition, Digital Chumps and Spawn Kill confirmed that most bugs remained, citing occasional freezes, several animation, and scripting issues along with other bugs, requiring a restart of the game.[110][111] Even IGN retroactively cited bugs with the original release as well as the Game of the Year edition, calling it "a fantastic game", but warned players to "be aware that you might have to deal with some crashes and bugs".[112]
Controversy and fandom

[Fallout 3] is not a Fallout game. It's not even a game inspired by Fallout, as I had hoped. It's a game that contains a loose assortment of familiar Fallout concepts and names ... Electricity, pre-war electronic equipment, powered and still working computers (just think about that for a second), working cola & snack machines, weapons, ammo, scrap metal (needed by many), and even unlooted first aid boxes are everywhere.
—Vince D. Weller, long-time No Mutants Allowed member, former RPG news site director, and lead developer of The Age of Decadence[113][114]

Not all fans are happy with the direction the Fallout series has taken since its acquisition by Bethesda Softworks. Notorious for their support of the series' first two games, Fallout and Fallout 2,[115][116] members centered around one of the oldest Fallout fansites, No Mutants Allowed, have criticized departures from the original games' stories, gameplay mechanics and setting.[116] Criticisms include the prevalence of unspoiled food after 200 years, the survival of wood-framed dwellings following a nuclear blast, and the ubiquitousness of Super Mutants at early levels in the game.[116] Also criticized are the quality of the game's writing, its level of verisimilitude, the switch to a first-person action game format, and the level of reactiveness of the surrounding game world to player actions.[116][117][118] In response, Jim Sterling of Destructoid has called fan groups like No Mutants Allowed "selfish" and "arrogant"; stating that a new audience deserves a chance to play a Fallout game; and that if the series had stayed the way it was back in 1997, new titles would never have been made and brought to market.[113] Luke Winkie of Kotaku tempers these sentiments, saying that it is a matter of ownership; and that in the case of Fallout 3, hardcore fans of the original series witnessed their favorite games become transformed into something else.[116]
Regional variations
Drug references

On July 4, 2008, Fallout 3 was refused classification by the ACB in Australia, thus making it illegal to distribute or purchase the game in the country. In order for the game to be reclassified, the offending content in the Australian version of the game would have had to be removed by Bethesda Softworks and the game resubmitted to the ACB.[119][120] According to the ACB board report, the game was refused classification due to the "realistic visual representations of drugs and their delivery method [bringing] the 'science-fiction' drugs in line with 'real-world' drugs".[121]

A revised version of the game was resubmitted to the ACB and reclassified as MA 15+ on August 7, 2008, or not suitable for people under the age of 15 unless accompanied by a parent or adult guardian; this new rating ensured that the game could retail legally in Australia.[119][122] According to the ACB board report, the drug content was not removed entirely from the revised version of the game, but the animation showing the actual usage of the drugs was removed; the minority view on the decision stated that the drug content was still enough to warrant a refused classification rating.[123]

In a later interview with UK gaming magazine Edge, Bethesda Softworks revealed that there would be only one version of Fallout 3 released worldwide, and that this version would have all real-world drug references removed. It was later clarified that the only change made would be that morphine, a real-world drug that would have appeared in the game, would instead be renamed to the more generic "Med-X".[124]
Release in India

On October 22, 2008, Microsoft announced that the game would not be released in India on the Xbox 360 platform.[125] Religious and cultural sentiments were cited as the reason. Microsoft stated, "Microsoft constantly endeavors to bring the best games to Indian consumers in sync with their international release. However, in light of cultural sensitivities in India, we have made the business decision to not bring Fallout 3 into the country."[126] Although the specific reason was not revealed in public, it is possible that it is because the game contains two-headed mutated cows called Brahmin, or that Brahmin is also the name of an ancient, powerful hereditary caste of Hindu priests and religious scholars in India, or its similarity to the spelling of brahman, a type of cow that originated in India. Brahman, a breed of Zebu, are revered by Hindus.[127]
Sensitivity in Japan

Bethesda Softworks changed the side quest "The Power of the Atom" in the Japanese version of Fallout 3 to relieve concerns about depictions of atomic detonation in inhabited areas, as the memory of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki remain strong in the country. In non-Japanese versions, players are given the option of either defusing, ignoring, or detonating the dormant atomic bomb in the town of Megaton; in the Japanese version, the character of Mr. Burke is absent, making it impossible to choose the detonation option.[128] Also in the Japanese release, the "Fat Man" nuclear catapult weapon was renamed "Nuka Launcher", as the original name was a reference to the bomb used on Nagasaki.[128][129] According to Tetsu Takahashi, responsible for localizing Fallout 3 to Japan under his company Zenimax Asia, the available actions prior to localizing "The Power of the Atom" and the ability to kill civilians almost got the game banned by CERO before it got an Adult Only Rating.[130]
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PostPosted: Fri May 06, 2016 6:27 pm Reply with quoteEdit/Delete this postBack to top
Fallout 4
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fallout 4
Fallout 4 cover art.jpg
Developer(s) Bethesda Game Studios
Publisher(s) Bethesda Softworks
Director(s) Todd Howard
Producer(s) Jeff Gardiner
Designer(s) Emil Pagliarulo
Programmer(s) Guy Carver
Artist(s) Istvan Pely
Writer(s) Emil Pagliarulo
Composer(s) Inon Zur
Series Fallout
Engine Creation Engine
Platform(s) Microsoft Windows
PlayStation 4
Xbox One
Release date(s)

WW November 10, 2015

Genre(s) Action role-playing
Mode(s) Single-player

Fallout 4 is an action role-playing video game developed by Bethesda Game Studios and published by Bethesda Softworks. The fifth major installment in the Fallout series, the game was released worldwide on November 10, 2015 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One.[1]

Fallout 4 is set in a post-apocalyptic Boston in the year 2287, 210 years after a devastating nuclear war, in which the player character emerges from an underground bunker known as Vault 111. Gameplay is similar to that of Fallout 3 and Fallout: New Vegas. The player completes various quests and acquires experience points to level up their character. With first-person and third-person perspectives available, players can explore Fallout 4's open world setting at will, allowing nonlinear gameplay. The player can bring companions to assist in battles and help with scavenging. Players have the ability to construc
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